geography theme 5 - weather, climate & ecosystems

DEFINE WEATHER
the atmospheric conditions at a particular time and place
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DEFINE CLIMATE
the average weather over a long period of time (over 30 years)
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EVIDENCE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE.
FOSSILS - ICE CORES - GLACIATION IN DIFFERENT PLACES - TREE RINGS - OLD DOCUMENTS
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RECENT EVIDENCE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
Increasing co2 levels. shifting seasons and different migrations patterns. glacier retreat. average global temperatures increased by 0.6 in 100 years
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CAUSES OF NATURAL CLIMATE CHANGE
changes in earths orbit shape. changes in earths tilt. changes in suns activity/ solar output radiation. volcanic activity.
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MILANKOVITCH CYCLE.
explains long term climate change through the earths orbit (eccentric which completes its eccentricity every 41000 years) and tilt (wobbles on axis every 2600 years)
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EXPLAIN THE CARBON CYCLE.
in ATMOSPHERE. to PLANTS (photosynthesis). to ANIMALS (when they eat plants). to AIR (respiration). to EARTH (decomposing)
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HUMAN INTERACTION WITH THE CARBON CYCLE.
plants cut down - co2 released. fossils fuels burnt - co2 released. waste in landfill - decomposition methane. farming - methane released
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EXPLAIN THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT.
1)solar energy enters atmosphere. 2)short wave energy passes through but some is reflected back into space. 3)some short wave is absorbed 4)solar energy heats earth & radiates heat back into atmosphere. 5)this long wave energy is absorbed by grn. gas
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EXPLAIN WHAT EFFECT VOLCANIC ACTIVITY HAS ON CLIMATE
global cooling - eruptions release dust and sulphur dioxide - forms an aerosol- tiny droplets - reflect energy back to space - reduces energy reaching surface. EG MOUNT PINATUBO, PHILIPPINES, 1991, 15MIL TONS SO2, GLOBAL TEMP -0.5
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EXPLAIN THE HADLEY CELL.
Earth warms equator, causes hot, moist air to rise and form low pressure at equator. Air then travels 30 degrees north and south after reaching the tropopause where it becomes cooler and heavier, falling and creating high pressure. air returns ICTZ
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EXPLAIN THE FERREL CELL.
Air rises at 60 degrees not and south - low pressure. Falls at 30 degrees north and south - high pressure
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EXPLAIN THE POLAR CELL.
Air rises at 60 degrees north and south - low pressure. Falls at 90 degrees north and south (poles) - high pressure
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WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS NEEDED TO FROM TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS (hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones)
Form over tropical seas - sea temp above 27 degrees - move westwards - can travel up to 600km a day - wind over 120km an hour - heavy rainfall - bring waves and storm surges
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DEFINE STORM SURGE
The pushing of water against a coastline to abnormally high levels through a combination of both high winds and extreme low pressure into a narrowing feature such as a bay or estuary.
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GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS.
80-100 form per year. Northern Hemisphere - June to November. Southern Hemisphere - November to April.
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CHANGES IN LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM PATTERNS OVER TIME?
increase in activity - bigger magnitude and higher frequency, larger destruction can be cause and more areas could be affected by tropical storms.
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EXAMPLE OF A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM
TYPHOON HAIYAN. 2013 Philippines, SE Asia. SOCIAL-devastation city Talcoban. killed 7400. 1.9mil homeless. airport destroyed.disease. ECONOMIC-$2.9bil lost. 5.9mil lost income source. ENVRNMTL-disease.loss of trees.flooding.sewage leaks.oil spills
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DEFINE HEATWAVE
An extended period of hot weather relative to the expected conditions at that time of year. HEATWAVES ARE NOW TEN TIMES MORE LIKELY THAN THEY WERE BEFORE THE YEAR 2000
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HOW DO HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS LEAD TO WEATHER HAZARDS?
light winds, dry weather. heat leads to higher rates of evaporation - drought. lack of rainfall. desertification can occur as a result of drought - across northern Africa.
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GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF AREAS AFFECTED BY DROUGHT
Mainly above equator - Africa and Central Asia and Middle East
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EXAMPLE OF HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM
CALIFORNIA DROUGHT 2012-2015,West Coast. SOCIAL-low river levels, lack of hydroelectric power. bans&regulations. ECONOMIC-crop failures,shortages,price rises. 17,000 agricultural jobs lost, bad for economy. ENVRNMNT-salmon&trout died-too hot.
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FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE UK'S CLIMATE?
LATITUDE-northern=colder. ALTITUDE-mountain areas=colder. ASPECT-southfacing slopes are warmer. OCEAN CURRENTS-north atlantic drift=warmer water keeps climate milder and temperate. WIND DIRECTION...
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HOW TO DIFFERENT AIR MASSES AFFECT THE UK?
NW=POLAR MARITIME-cool, showery. NORTH=ARCTIC-cold, snow. EAST=POLAR CONTINENTAL-hot summer, cold winter. S.E.=TROPICAL CONTINENTAL-hot,dry. S.W.=TROPICAL MARITIME-mild,wet
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FEATURES OF AN URBAN MICROCLIMATE
URBAN HEAT ISLANDS-refelction on heat from buildings. absorption of heat during day by concrete, tarmac,brick and release of heat at night. MORE PRECIPITATION-extra heat generated, air rising. LESS WIND-buildings blocking wind currents
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DEFINE ECOSYSTEM
The links between plants, animals and non-living things such as rocks, soil, water and climate
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DEFINE BIOME
A large scale ecosystem where the conditions and features are broadly the same in the area.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE-SCALE ECOSYSTEMS / BIOMES
RAINFALL-amount and seasonal patterns (less than 25cm per year is desert). TEMPERATURE- used when rainfall is reliable(mountain ecosystems temp falls by 1 for every 200m altitude). RELIEF. GEOLOGY. SOILS.
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TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST CHARACTERISTICS
hot and cold season means that trees lose their leaves in autumn to conserve energy.
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CONIFEROUS FOREST CHARACTERISTICS
very cold in winter, trees have evolved needle-like leaves to survive the frosts and reduce moisture loss.
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EXPLAIN THE NUTRIENT CYCLE
weathered rock releases nutrients to soil - water adds nutrient to soil -plants absorb nutrients through roots and leaves - herbivores eat and gain - plants/animals die, decompose by bacteria and fungi - nutrients back to soil . Lost thru LEACHING
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EXPLAIN FOOD WEBS
Sun provides energy-plants photosynthesis-herbivores (primary consumers)-carnivores (secondary consumers)-connexted to make a food web. NO OF LIVING ORGANISMS DECREASES AT EACH STAGE BC ENERGY IS LOST, USED UP IN TRANSPIRATIN,MOVEMENT,RESPIRATION.
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EXAMPLE OF A BIOME - RAINFOREST.
along equator, 6% land area. most diversee life. rainfall over 2000mm/yr, 25degrees. NUTRIENTS-80%from trees, 20%in soil, hot&damp aid decomposition-high demand. WATER-interception at canopy-heats-convectional rain. CARBON-stores most carbon-soil-bur
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EXAMPLE OF A BIOME - SAVANNAH GRASSLAND
within tropics, 5-15 n+s, between rainforests&deserts. marked wet+dry,23-28,scarce vegetation.NTRNTS-less, short growing season, surface of soil, fires mineralise killoffweeds prevent trees WATER-drought 4-8 mnths,diverting wtr 4 tourists-scarce CARB
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WHAT ARE THE WAYS IN WHICH ECOSYSTEMS PROVIDE KEY SERVICES?
TIMBER, FOOD, WATER. NUTRIENT CYCLING, REGULATING CLIMATE AND AIR QUALITY, CARBON STORES, NATURAL DEFENCES (SAND DUNES). ATTRACTING TOURISTS-ECONOMY, SUSTAINING CULTURE.
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EXAMPLE OF A SMALL SCALE ECOSYSTEM - SAND DUNES
accumulations of sand stabilised by vegetation, sand stops when hitting object-embryo dunes&eventually fore and grey dunes form. Natural coastal defences. Develop tourism. Provide sand for building
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HOW DOES HUMAN ACTIVITY AFFECT BIODIVERSITY, FLOWS, CYCLES AND PROCESSES IN SAND DUNES?
RECREATION-leisure,plants trampled-sand exposed and blown away. ECONOMIC-tourism,farming on dunes. ENVIRONMENTAL-afforestation to prevent movement of sand-affects biodiversity. groynes affect flow of sediment. MNGMNT-protective fencing,signs,planting
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WHAT ARE THE THREATS TO THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST?
DEFORESTATION: due to increased pastoral farming. Logging (cutting down trees for wood, paper). Mining (amazon basin is rich in iron ore, copper,gold). Roads (access for miners and farmers). Resevoirs and dams. Population
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IMPACTS OF DEFORESTATION
SOIL EROSION - when it rains nutrients are washed away, nutrient cycle stops, cannot support life. LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY. INCREASED CLIMATE CHANGE-less co2 absorbed, more released. INCREASES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT-money created from logging, mines,farm
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EXAMPLE OF USING AN ENVIRONMENT TO PRODUCE ENERGY.
BRISTOL CHANNEL - West coast of UK, 14m tidal range (2nd highest in the world). today barrage - lots of energy produced and can be used as a bridge. costly, negative for environment. less greenhouse gases, renewable, reliable, long lasting
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HOW DOES VEGETATION ADAPT TO THE HOT, DRY CLIMATE OF THE SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND?
baobab tree-thick bark fire resistant, few leaves less water lost in transpiration, large trunk can store up to 500litres of water. ACACIA TREE-broad flat canopy to reduce water loss, thornybranches deter animals, long tap roots reach groundwater,wax
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HOW DOES HUMAN ACTIVITY AFFECT THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST?
Deforestation to provide farming land removes the canopy barrier, causing increased soil erosion, this soil is washed into rivers and reduces their capacity, flooding further downstream. habitat loss. increased evaporation-drier regional climate.
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HOW DOES HUMAN ACTIVITY AFFECT THE SAVANNAH GRASSLAND?
DESERTIFICATION-due to climate change and less rainfall also result of overgrazing/overcultivation. SLASH AND BURN-space for farming, nutrient cycle broken, soil erosion-infertility.OVERGRAZING-less canopy, less evapotranspiration, less moisture
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HOW CAN THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST BE MANAGED SUSTAINABLY?
deforestation-fragmentation of wildlife-WILDLIFE CORRIDORS- animals can move w/o barriers. CONSERVATION/BUFFER ZONES-hard to control all rainforest, allocated areas where activity is encouraged eg planting crops and ecotourism, hunting for food-real
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HOW CAN THE SAVANNAH GRASSLAND BE MANAGED SUSTAINABLY?
CROP ROTATION-fallow periods soil re-fertilise. AFFORESTATION-reducing wind and water erosion. IRRIGATION-wter dry areas- diverting rivers/building wells. DROUGHT RESISTANT CROPS-eg Ghana 1 in 5 children malnutrition. income, jobs, food, reduced eros
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GREAT GREEN WALL OF AFRICA
11 countries in central africa signed an agreement in 2010 to plant a 15km wide strp across the width of africa to prevent soil erosion and encourage migration.11 mil trees have been planted since.crop yield increased.trees providing medicine and wo
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Card 2

Front

DEFINE CLIMATE

Back

the average weather over a long period of time (over 30 years)

Card 3

Front

EVIDENCE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

RECENT EVIDENCE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

CAUSES OF NATURAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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