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  • Created by: Zaral1999
  • Created on: 11-06-16 19:22
Define the Site of a settlement?
The area of land on which a settlement is built
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Define the Situation of a settlement?
A settlements location relative to it's surroundings
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Define the Shape of a settlement?
The arrangement of houses within a settlement
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Changing functions of a settlement
London: was a port for transporting goods until 1950's due to easy access to the North sea. Became industrial/manufacturing during Victorian times due to Urbanisation. Now is used as a market centre, residential (over 8 million people living) & more
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Residential settlement
Southgate: housing for people to live, often where a lot of retired people live
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Market Centre settlement
St. Albans: an area which aims to provide services for local areas. A place where people trade goods
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Administrative settlement
Hertford: often county towns that employ a large number of civil servants and are centres of local government
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Strategic settlement
Rochester: settlements that were built using physical geographical knowledge to protect from attack
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Industrial settlement
Sheffield: provides jobs in the secondary sector. Exploits a resource in the area
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Tourist Resort settlement
Brighton: Usually a physical attraction to attract people. Tourism provides money for the local economy
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Define Counter-urbanisation
The movement of people out of cities to rural areas that are close to the cities. Has been happening in the UK over the past 50years
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Causes of Counter-urbanisation
-People move to the country side in retirement -Urban areas have high rates of crime, pollution and traffic -Transport networks have improved, making it easier to get in and out of the city. -Technology improvements mean people can work from home
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POSITIVE social effects of Counter-urbanisation?
-Local schools are able to stay open as newcomers often have young families. - Derelict buildings are turned into habitable dwellings, adding to the aesthetic value and community well-being.
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POSITIVE economic effects of Counter-urbanisation?
-Due to increased demand for services by newcomers, new restaurants + pubs can open. -Local services such as shops+pubs are supported by the newcomers and get a new lease of life.
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NEGATIVE social effects of counter-urbanisation?
-Traffic congestion increases in villages -Villagers can lose community spirit as the villages are like ghost towns during the day when people are commuting -The traditions of the village may not be valued by the newcomers
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NEGATIVE economic effects of counter-urbanisation?
-New comers may do their shopping in the cities so local village shops have to close -House prices rise as demand rises, pushing local people out
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Counter-urbanisation CASE STUDY
AUSTREY, WARWICKSHIRE: movement of people from Birmingham and Tamworth into the village during the 1970's causing an increase in the population from 300 people in 1961 to 1000 people in 2001
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Counter-urbanisation CASE STUDY (negative effects)
-The environment has changed, with new housing estates such as Elms Drive being built on previous farmsteads -There was previously 18 farms in the village, now there are 2 -Buildings have been converted, the village has lost some of it's character
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Counter-urbanisation CASE STUDY (positive effects)
-The village school has opened on a new site with 120 children on roll, compared with 1961's 16 children -The village pub 'The Bird in Hand' is thriving and has become a meeting place for the local community -Newcomers use the village shop
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SOCIAL effects of rural depopulation
-Decline in service provision (45% of people in remote rural areas do not have a bus service) -Closure of schools (Lowick school, Lake District 2006) -Services far away (for the residents of cornwall the only major hospital is in Devon)
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ECONOMIC effects of rural depopulation
-Shops closing (in Cornwall 25% of post offices are set to close) -Lack of bank accounts (only 50% of people in remote rural areas have a bank account)
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Reasons for changing land use in urban areas?
-De-industrialisation due to manufacturing moving to NICs/LICs -Increased demand for housing
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Reasons for increased demand for housing? ECONOMIC
-A rise in average incomes means people can afford to move out earlier -'Buy now pay later' means more people can afford houses (companies now offer 100% mortgages with no deposit)
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Reasons for increased demand for housing? SOCIAL
-People marry later in life now (average age of marriage up from 24 in 1960 to 30 in 2010) -Rising divorce rate means families need 2 homes -Ageing population -British society changes: many older people live alone and younger people want to move out
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Reasons for increased demand for housing? POLITICAL
-The governments have a duty to provide homes for people and also any asylum seekers&open more borders -The last two governments pushed for 'affordable housing' to help them win elections (Thames Gateway project: 3 million houses built in SE by 2020)
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Consequences of the need for more housing
-The development of gated suburbs for protection -Urban sprawl and the development of greenfield sites -Redevelopment and renewal of old office and industrial premises
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Define Urban Sprawl
The outwards growth of towns and cities into the surrounding countryside. Occurs on the rural-urban fringe. Government has tried to control it by introducing Green Belts but people just built around them & some things are allowed to be built in them
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Define Greenfield site
Areas which have not previously been developed in any way. Usually at the edge of cities.
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Define Brownfield site
An area within a city which is no longer used. It may contain old derelict housing or factories, or it may have been cleared ready for development
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Define Redevelopment
Where derelict buildings are demolished and replaced with buildings that are in current demand
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Define Renewal
When old buildings are renovated and brought up to date, combining the best of the old and the new e.g. along Regents Canal, Camden
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ADVANTAGES of greenfield sites
-Cheaper to buy the land -More scenic, quiet & attractive -Lower construction costs as there is nothing to knock down -Originally unoccupied so developers can build as they wish -Access to the development is easier due to less congestion
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DISADVANTAGES of greenfield sites
-Destroys habitat of surrounding wildlife -Infrastructure will not be present -Causes urban sprawl -More difficult to get planning permission -People may not want to live there as it is harder to access
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ADVANTAGES of brownfield sites
-Planning permission is easier to get -Infrastructure is already present -No building on greenfield sites so less urban sprawl -If built in cities, larger labour force and demand for housing -Sites easier to marker due to access to other facilities
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DISADVANTAGES of brownfield sites
-Land can be more expensive to buy as it is closer to the city centre -Must be cleared/decontaminated, which is expensive -During construction local residents suffer noise/visual pollution -Cities may have social problems making them harder to market
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Example of redevelopment of a Brownfield site
LONDON'S DOCKLANDS: redeveloped in late 1980's from vast derelict wasteland to CANARY WHARF - London's financial centre
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What are the 2 reasons for the rapid growth in Urban areas in LICs?
-Migration from rural areas to urban areas -High natural increase in population
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Reasons for the migration of people from rural areas to urban areas?
-Lack of jobs in rural areas due to mechanisation+population growth -Salaries are lower in rural areas -Development of TNCs and other industry providing jobs in urban areas -The perception of a better life -Better education
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Reasons for the high natural increase in population?
-The youth of the migrants: many of child bearing age -Better medical facilies: lower infant mortality rate in urban areas -Higher life expectancy due to better living conditions & diet -Lack of sex education or contraception
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Rapid growth of urban areas CASE STUDY - POSITIVES
-Large pool of workers willing to do low paid jobs -Leads to growth of the economy and expansion of manufacturing + retail sectors
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Rapid growth of urban areas CASE STUDY - NEGATIVES (Noise pollution)
Noise pollution: SARAYA AL GEZIRA residents must put up with above acceptable noise levels from night club boats
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Rapid growth of urban areas CASE STUDY - NEGATIVES (Air pollution)
Air pollution: an estimated HALF A MILLION Cairo residents will die prematurely to poor air quality
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Rapid growth of urban areas CASE STUDY - NEGATIVES (Land pollution)
Land pollution: 10,000 tonnes of solid waste is produced a day
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Rapid growth of urban areas CASE STUDY - NEGATIVES (Housing shortage)
Housing shortage: approximately 60% of Cairo's residents live in shiny houses
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Rapid growth of urban areas CASE STUDY - NEGATIVES (Water pollution)
Water pollution: 23% of residents don't have access to fresh water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define the Situation of a settlement?


A settlements location relative to it's surroundings

Card 3


Define the Shape of a settlement?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Changing functions of a settlement


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Residential settlement


Preview of the front of card 5
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