Geography Rocks Key Words

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Geological Timescale
The period of geological time since life became abundant 542 million years ago, which geologists have divided into eras and periods.
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Crust
The outer layer of the earth
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Igneous Rocks
Rocks formed from the cooling of molten magma
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Sedimentary Rocks
Most commonly, rocks formed from the accumulation of sediment on the sea floor
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Metamorphic Rocks
Rocks that have undergone a change in their chemistry and texture as a result of heating and/or pressure
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Rock Cycle
Connections between the three rock types shown in the form of a diagram
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Weathering
The breakup or decay of rocks in their original place at or close to the earths surface.
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Mechanical Weathering
Weathering that does not involve chemical change
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Scree
Deposits of angular rock fragments found at the front of rock outcrops
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Chemical Weathering
Weathering that involves a chemical change taking place
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Biological Weathering
Weathering caused by living organisms such as tree roots or burrowing animals
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Freeze-thaw weathering
Weathering involving repeated cycles of freezing and thawing
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Pores
Holes in rock
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Exfoliation
Flaking of the outer surface of rocks mainly caused by repeated cycles of hot and cold
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Solution
Dissolving of rocks or minerals by rainwater
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Carbonation
Weathering of limestone and chalk by acidic rainwater
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Batholith
A huge irregular shaped mass of intrusive igneous rock that only reaches the ground surface when the overlying rocks are removed
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Joints
Cracks that may run vertically or horizontally through rocks
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Impermeable Rocks
A rock that does not allow water to pass through it
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Tor
An isolated outcrop of rock on a hilltop, typically found in granite landscapes
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Mass Movement
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity
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Cliff
A steep or vertical face of rock at the coast
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Permeable Rock
A rock that allows water to pass through it
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Water Table
The upper surface of underground water
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Spring
Water re-emerging from the rock onto the ground surface. Springs occur as a line of springs at the base of a scarp slope
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Vale
In the landscape, a flat plain typically formed on clay
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Escarpment
An outcrop of chalk comprising a steep scarp slope and a more gentle dip slope
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Dry Valley
A valley formed by a river during a wetter period in the past but now without a river
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Gorge
Steep-sided deep valley that may be formed by cavern collapse
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Limestone Pavement
A bare rocky surface, with distinctive blocks (clints) and enlarged joints (grikes)
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Swallow Hole
An enlarged joint into which water falls
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Resurgance
A stream that emerges from underground
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Stalactite
An icicle like calcite feature hanging down from a cavern
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Stalagmite
A stumpy calcite feature formed on a cavern floor
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Curtain
A broad deposit of calcite usually formed when water emerges along a crack in a cavern
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Cement
Motar used in building made from crushed limestone and shale
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Syncline
The lower arc of the fold in fold mountains
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Aquifer
An underground reservoir of water stored in pores and/or joints in a rock
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Aggregate
Crushed stone made from tough rocks such as limestone, used in the construction industry and in road building
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Quarry Restoration
Restoring or improving the environmental quality of a quarry, either during its operation or afterwards
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The outer layer of the earth

Back

Crust

Card 3

Front

Rocks formed from the cooling of molten magma

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Most commonly, rocks formed from the accumulation of sediment on the sea floor

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Rocks that have undergone a change in their chemistry and texture as a result of heating and/or pressure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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