Geography Rivers & Coasts - Theme 1

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What does the Hydrological Cycle show?
How water moves around
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What are the three different parts of the Hydrological Cycle?
Sea, land and atmosphere
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What type of system is the Hydrological Cycle?
Closed System
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What is Transpiration?
Evaporation of water from plants
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What is Evapotranspiration?
Both Evaporation and Transpiration happening together
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What are the 6 flows/transfers in the Hydrological Cycle?
Infiltration, Percolation, Throughflow, Groundwater flow, Surface runoff, Channel flow.
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What is Infiltration?
Water soaks into the soil
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What is Percolation?
Water moves vertically down through soil & rock
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What is Throughflow?
Water in the soil flows downhill
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What is Groundwater flow?
Water in the rock flows downhill
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What is Surface Runoff?
Water flows overgound
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What is Channel flow?
Flow of water in a river
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What are the 4 stores involved in the Hydrological Cycle?
Channel storage, Groundwater storage, Interception storage and Surface Storage
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What is Channel Storage?
Water is held in a river
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What is Groundwater storage?
Water is stored underground
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What is a aquifer?
A rock that stores water
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What is Interception Storage?
Water lands on things like plants & Doesn't hit the ground
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What is Surface Storage?
Water is held in rivers, lakes and puddles
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What is a Drainage Basin?
Area of land drained by a river
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What type of system is a Drainage basin?
Open system
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What is the input of a drainage basin?
Percipitation
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What are the 6 flows involved with a drainage basin?
Surface runoff, channel flow, infiltration, throughflow, groundwater flow, percolation
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What are the 4 Stores involved with a drainage basin?
Channel storage, groundwater storage, interception storage and surface storage
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What are the 3 outputs of a drainage basin?
Evaporation, Transpiration and River flow into the sea
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What is a Tributary?
A smaller river (Stream) that joins a main river
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What is a Source?
Where a river starts, usually in an upland area (Mountains)
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What is a Confluence?
A point where two rivers meet
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What is the Mouth?
Where a river flows into the sea or a lake
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What is a Watershed?
Ridges of highland where water falls either side
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What is Mechanical Weathering?
Breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition
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What is an example of Mechanical Weathering?
Freeze-thaw
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Explain the process of freeze-thaw
Temp alternates below & above 0'. Water gets into cracks. Water freezes=Expands=pressure. Thaws=Contracts=less pressure. Repeated=Widens crack & breaks
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What is Chemical Weathering?
Breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition
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What is an example of Chemical Weathering?
Carbonation weathering
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Explain the Process of Carbonation Weathering
Rainwater=C02 dissolved in it=Weak Carbonic Acid. Carbonic Acid+Rock that contains Calcium carbonate react = rock dissolves
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What are the four processes of Erosion?
Hydraulic action, Corrasion, Attrition and Corrosion
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What is Hydraulic action?
Force of water breaks rock particles away from river channel
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What is Corrasion?
Rocks picked up by river scrape & rub against channel
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What is Attrition?
Rocks picked up by river smash into each other & break into smaller pieces. Edges get rounded off as they rub together
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What is Corrosion?
Rain water dissolves some types of rocks
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What are the four process of transporation?
Traction, Saltation, Suspension, Solution
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What is Traction?
Large particles pusjes along river bed by force of water
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What is Saltation?
Pebble sized particles bounced along river bed by force of water
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What is Suspension?
Small particles carried along by the water
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What is Solution?
Soluble materials dissolve in the water & carried along
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What is deposition?
When a river drops eroded material
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When does Deposition occur?
When the river slows down (Loses velocity)
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What are the four reasons why river slow down and deposit material?
Vol of water falls, Amount of eroded material in water increases, Water shallower (Ex Inside a bend), River reaches its mouth
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Where are waterfalls and gorges found?
Upprt course of a river
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What are Deltas?
Low-lying areas where a river meets the sea or a lake
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What are the three types of Delta?
Arcuate, Cuspate and Bird's Foot.
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What are the features of a Arcuate Delta?
Rounded shape & Lot's of distributaries.
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What are the features of a Cuspate Delta?
Triangular shape & Few distributaries
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What do Contour lines tell us on a map?
The height of the land in m, (No. next to them) and the steepness of the land (Closer the contour lines the steeper the land)
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What pieces of evidence on a map show a Waterfall?
Close contour lines, & Symbol for cliffs (Black, Blocky lines)
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What pieces of evidence on a map show a Upper course of a river?
Land is high (712m), Crosses lots of contour lines in a short distance, River narrow (Thin Blue line)
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What pieces of evidence on a map show a rivers Lower Course?
Land low (20M), Only crosses 1 contour line, River joining to a lake or sea
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What are the 5 Physical factors that course rivers to flood?
Prolonged Rainfall, Heavy Rainfall, Snowmelt, Relief, Geology
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What are the 2 Human causes that cause rivers to flood?
Deforestation & Urbanisation
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What are 3 impacts of floods?
People are killed, water supplies contaminated, Buildings damaged/destroyed, Jobs lost due to damages to business and equipment.
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What are 3 hard engineering stratergies used to reduce the risk of flooding?
Dams & Reservoirs, Channel Straightening, Man-made Levees
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What are Dams & Reservoirs?
Dams (Huge walls) built across rivers - Upper Course usually. Reservoirs (artifical lake) formed behind dam
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What are the benefits of Dams & Resevoirs?
Resevoirs= Store water & Release it slowly - Reduces flood risk. Water in reservoirs used as drinking water & to generate hydroelectric power. Attractive - used for recreation
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What are the disadvantages of Dams & Reservoirs?
Dams= Expensive to build. Creating resevoir= Flood exsisting settlements.
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What is Channel Straightening?
River's course is straightened- Meander's cut out by building artifical straight channels
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What are the benefits of Channel straightening?
Water moves out of area more quickly - Doesn't travel as far = Reduces risk of flooding
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What are the disadvantages of Channel straightening?
Flooding may happend downstream of straightened channel instead as floodwater carried faster there
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What are Man-Made Levees?
Man-Made Embankments along both sides of the river
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What are the benefits of Man-Made Levees?
=River can hold more water = Reduces the risk of flooding. Quite cheap
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What are the disadvantages of Man-Made Levees?
If break can cause catastrophic flooding
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What are Flood Warnings?
People warned about possible flooding on TV, Radio, Newspapers and the Internet
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What are the benefits of Flood Warnings?
Impact of flooding reduced - Warnings give people time to move possesions upstairs, put out sandbags and evacuate.
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What are the disadvantages of Flood Warnings?
Warning don't stop floods. People may not have access or hear warnings (Especially in LEDCS)
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What is preparation?
Buildings modified to reduce amount of damage. People make plans for what to do in situation of flood Ex- Keep a blanket
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What are the benefits of Preparation?
Impact of flooding reduced. Buildings less damaged. People know what to do
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What are the disadvantages of Preparation?
Doesn't guarantee safety. Gives people false sense of security. Expensive to modify homes & Business
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What is Flood Plain Zoning?
Restricitions prevent build on flood plains that are likely to be affected by the flood
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What are the benefits of Flood Plain Zoning?
Impermeable surfaces aren't created Ex- Roads. Impact of flooding reduced - houses and roads not damaged
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What are the disadvantage of Flood Plain Zoning?
Expansion of an urban area limited. No help for the areas already built on area likely to be affected by the flood.
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Name a case study of a flood in an MEDC, The Date it happened and What River was involved
Carlise, England. 8th January 2005. River Eden
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What were the Causes of the Carlise flood?
Heavy rainfall (200mm) fell in 36Hrs = Saturated soil - increased runoff into River Eden. Urban area-Impermeable materials.
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What was the average River discharge in Cumecs and what did it reach when it flooded?
Average = 52 Cumecs. Reached= 1520 Cumcecs.
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What were the primary effects of the flood?
3 Deaths. 3000 people homeless. 4 Schools flooded. 350 business shut down. 70,000 adresses lost power. Some roads & Buldings damaged. Rivers polluted w/ rubbish & Sewage
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What were the secondary effects of the flood?
Children lost out on education. Stress-related illnesses. 3000 jobs were at risk
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What were the flood protection measures?
Scheme Eden & Petteril flood Allevation scheme completed (2008)- building up flood defence walls and levees. Local council distributes sandbags.
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Name a LEDC affected by flooding, The date, and the Rivers affected
South Asia - Bangladesh & India. July & August 2007. Rivers Brahmaputra & Ganges
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What were the causes of the flood?
Heavy rainfall (900mm) In July. Melting snow from glaciers in Himalayan mountains. Peak discharge of both rivers happened at same time.
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What were the primary effects of the flood?
Over 2000 Deaths. 25 Million homeless. 44 schools destroyed. 112,000 Houses destroyed. 10,000 Km of Roads destroyed. Rivers Polluted
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What were the secondary effects of the flood?
Children lost out on education. 100,000 people caught water-borne diseases (Dysentery & Diarrhoea). Flooded fields reduced basmati rice yields - prices rose 10%.
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What were the flood protection measures?
Flood Forecasting & Warning system w/ 85 moitoring stations -issued 72hrs before but rural communities are not reached. 6,000 Km of man-made levees -Easily eroded aren't maintained properly.
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What are the 6 Hard Engineering stratergies to protect the Coast?
Sea Wall, Rip rap, Groynes, Revertments, Gabions, Breakwaters
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What are the 2 Soft Engineering stratergies to protect the Coast?
Beach Replenshiment & Managed retreat
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What is a sea wall?
Wall made out of material like concrete. Reflects waves back to sea
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What are the benefits of a sea wall?
Prevents erosion of coast. Acts as barrier to prevent flooding
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What are the disadvantages of Sea walls?
Creates strong backwash = erodes under the wall. Very expensive to build & Maintain
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What is Rip Rap?
Boulders piled up along the coast
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What are the benefits of Rip rap?
Absorb wave energy = Reduce erosion & Flooding
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What are the disadvantages of Rip Rap?
Boulders can be moved around by strong waves so need to be replaced.
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What are Groynes?
Wooden/stone fences built along coast at right angle. Trap material transported by longshore drift
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What are the benefits of Groynes?
Create wider beaches = Slows waves.
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What are the disadvantages of Groynes?
Starve beaches further down of sand= narrower.
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What are Revetments?
Slanted structures made of concrete, wood/rocks built at foot of cliffs.
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What are the benefits of Revetments?
Absorb wave energy= Reduce Erosion
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What are the disadvantages of Revetments?
Expensive to build. Create strong backwash that erodes under the barrier
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What are Gabions?
Rock filled cages, built at foot of cliff
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What are the benefits of Gabions?
Absorb wave energy
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What are the disadvantages of Gabions?
Look Ugly
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What are Breakwaters?
Concrete blocks/boulders depositied on the sea bed off the coast
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What are the benefits of Breakwaters?
Force waves to break offshore= erosive power reduced before they reach shore
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What are the disadvantages of Breakwaters?
Expensive and can be damaged by storms
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What is Beach Replenishment?
Sand & Shingle3 from elsewhere added to beaches
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What are the benefits of Beach replenishment?
Creates wider beaches= slows waves.
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What are the disadvantages of Beach Replenshiment?
Taking material from seabed = kills organisms like sponges & Corals. Very expensive. Has to be repeated
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What is Managed Retreat?
Removing an exsisting defence & Allowing the land behind it to flood
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What are the benefits of Managed Retreat?
Over time land = Marshland= Creates new habitats. Cheap
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What are the disadvantages of Managed Retreat?
People may disagree over what land is allowed to flood.
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Name A MEDC Coast that has Hard Engineering stratergies in place to reduce Coastal Erosion
Holderness
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What are the impacts of Holderness's coast not being protected?
houses on cliff collapse into sea
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Card 2

Front

What are the three different parts of the Hydrological Cycle?

Back

Sea, land and atmosphere

Card 3

Front

What type of system is the Hydrological Cycle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Transpiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Evapotranspiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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