Geography Rivers and Coasts

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What does the hydrological cycle show?
It shows how water moves around
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Describe three flows in the hydrological cycle
Evaporation-when water is heated by the sun and turns into water vapour. Transpiration-evaporation of water from plants. Evapotranspiration-when both evaporation and transpiration happen at the same time.
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Describe three stores in the hydrological cycle
Channel storage-when water is held in a river. Groundwater storage-when water is stored underground in the soil and rock, aquifers are rocks that hold the water. Surface storage-when water is held in things such as lakes, reservoirs and puddles.
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What is a drainage basin?
A drainage basin is the area of land drained by a river.
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Name two outputs from a drainage basin system
Evaporation and Transpiration.
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What happens at a confluence?
Two rivers join together.
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What is biological weathering?
It is the break down of rocks by living things.
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What does a river's long profile show?
It shows you how the gradient changes over the different courses.
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Describe the cross profile of a river's lower course
It shows you the cross-section of what the river looks like. In the lower course it is a very wide, almost flat valley, with a very wide, deep channel.
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What is corrasion?
Eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away.
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Name two processes of transportation
Traction and Saltation.
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When does deposition occur?
It happens when the river slows down.
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Where do waterfalls form? Name an example
They form where a river flows over an area of hard rock followed by an area of softer rock.
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How is a gorge formed?
They are formed when more undercutting causes more of the cliff to collapse. This causes the waterfall to retreat, leaving behind a steep-sided gorge.
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Why do rivers have to wind around interlocking spurs?
They are not strong enough to erode sideways so they have to wind around the hillsides.
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What is a flood plain?
Flood plains are flat areas of land that flood.
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Name one type of delta and describe what it looks like
Arcuate-have a rounded shape and lots of distributaries e.g the Nile Delta
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Where is the current fastest on a meander?
The current is faster on the outside of the bend because the river channel is deeper. This means that there is less friction to slow the water down, so it has more energy.
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Name the landform created when a meander is cut off by deposition
Ox-bow lake.
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What do the contour lines on a map show?
They tell you about the hight of the land by the numbers marked on them, and the steepness of the land by how close together.
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Give two pieces of map evidence for a waterfall
Waterfalls are marked on maps, but the symbol for a cliff (black, blocky lines) and close contour lines are evidence for a waterfall.
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Give two pieces of map evidence for a river's lower course
The river only crosses one contour line so it is very gently sloping. The river is wide, this is shown by a thick blue line.
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What is river discharge?
This is the volume of water flowing in a river.
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How does impermeable rock affect river discharge?
Water can not infiltrate into the rock so there is more runoff and a shorter lag time.
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Describe one physical cause of flooding
Prolonged rain-after a long period of rain, the soil becomes saturated. Any further rainfall can't infiltrate, which increases runoff into rivers. This increases discharge quickly, which can cause a flood.
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Describe one human cause of flooding
Deforestation-cutting down trees increases discharge and makes flooding more likely. Soil also gets washed away which increases the riverbed which decreases the amount of water that the river can hold so increases the chance of floods.
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Name a hard engineering strategy and describe it's benefits
Channel Straightening. + water moves out of an area more quickly because it doesn't travel as far - reducing the risk of floofi
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Name a soft engineering strategy and describe it's disadvantages
Flood Warnings. - warnings don't stop a flood from happening. People may not hear or have access to warnings.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe three flows in the hydrological cycle

Back

Evaporation-when water is heated by the sun and turns into water vapour. Transpiration-evaporation of water from plants. Evapotranspiration-when both evaporation and transpiration happen at the same time.

Card 3

Front

Describe three stores in the hydrological cycle

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a drainage basin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name two outputs from a drainage basin system

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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