Geography Rivers

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  • Created by: Jessbxx
  • Created on: 16-04-16 20:05
What is the source of a river?
Where the river begins
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What is the mouth of a river?
Where the river ends
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What are the landforms found in the upper course of a river?
V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges of recession
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What are the landforms found in the midde course of the river?
Meanders, Oxbow lakes, Levees, Flood plains
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What are the landforms found in the lower course of a river?
Meanders, Oxbow Lakes, Levees, Flood plains and Deltas
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How is material transported down a river?
Traction, Saltation, Suspention, Solution
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What are the processes of river erosion?
Hydraulic Action, Attrition, Corosion and corrasion
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What is a tributary?
A smaller river which flows into a larger river.
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What is a confluence?
Where to rivers meet.
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What is a watershed?
The imaginary line that surrounds a drainage basin
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What is a drainage basin?
The area drained by a river and its tributaries.
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What is Hydraulic Action?
where the sheer force of the water erodes the stones, bed and banks of the river
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What is Attrition?
where stones in transport are thrown into one another making them smoother and rounder
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What is corasion?
where stones in transport are thrown into the bed and the banks eroding them
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What is Corosion?
where weak acids within the water react with the rocks and bed and bank of the river
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What is Solution?
Where material is dissolved within the water
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What is suspension?
Where small particles are held up or suspended in the water
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What is Saltation?
The bouncing motion of larger particles along the river bed
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What is Traction?
The rolling motion of sediment along the bed - normally much larger sediment
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What is mass movement?
these processes involve material on slopes moving down slope. They range in speed from rock falls to much slower soil creep
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What is Deposition?
this is the laying down of sediment in the river channel or on floodplains. This occurs when river velocities slow within the channel, or when velocities slow over floodplains or when the river enters a sea or lake.
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What is Transportation?
the movement of material, in this case by river water. There are 2 types of material that we consider in rivers - the bedload and the suspended load
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What is Erosion?
The wearing away of the land by moving forces
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What are the characteristiocs of a cross profile of a upper valley?
Traction and Saltation are at high flow, Load size is larger and angular, Vshaped valleys, vertical erosion
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What are the characteristics of a cross profile of a middle valley?
Channel is deeper and wider, Vertical errosion decreasing in importance, more lateral errosion and deposition, suspension is the main transportation type, load becomes smaller and less angular.
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What are the characterisitcs of a cross profile of a lower valley.
Channel is at its widest and may be tidal, Depostition is more important the erosion, fine material is deposited, Large amount of load but the size is very small and rounded.
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What is Hard engineering?
Hard engineering involves the building of entirely ARTIFICIAL structures using various materials such as rock, concrete and steel to reduce or stop the impact of river processes.
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What is soft engineering?
SOFT ENGINEERING is a contrasting approach. It involves managing a river using natural materials and mimicking natural processes to protect more vulnerable areas.
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Impacts of flooding?
Buildings are damaged, animals , people drown, transport is interupted, crops ruined, sewage contamination, insurance claims fertile soil.
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How to control flooding?
Build dams, Levees, Staighten meanders, Afforestation , early warning systems,
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What is flooding?
Occurs when water over tops its banks and leaves the channel. floods oocur from long periods of rain and thunderstroms.
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What is a Estuary?
Where the river opens up into the sea or lake to form mud flats and salt marshes
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What is a Levees?
an embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river
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Where does flooding mostly occur?
Flooding more impacts on LEDC then MEDC
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the mouth of a river?

Back

Where the river ends

Card 3

Front

What are the landforms found in the upper course of a river?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the landforms found in the midde course of the river?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the landforms found in the lower course of a river?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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