Geography Revision

  • Created by: leeannnee
  • Created on: 11-12-16 13:00
What is an avalanche?
A form of mass movement, where a large amount of material is displaced over a short time.
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Name the types of avalanches.
Loose Snow: Common on steep slopes, happens after fresh snowfall when it doesn't have enough time to compact.
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What is loose snow?
Common on steep slopes, happens after fresh snowfall when it doesn't have enough time to compact.
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What is slab?
Large blocks of ice that are displaced and cascade down the slope.
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Powdered Snow?
A mix of loose snow and slab, snow transported on top of the ice.
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Wet Snow?
Made of water and snow, slower but can pick up debris.
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What are the causes of an avalanche?
Layering Snow, Deforestation, Vibrations, Wind Direction, Heavy Snowfall, Steep Slopes
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Primary Social Effects of Avalanches.
Death and road/railway blockage.
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Primary Economical Effects
Destruction of buildings, power cuts and earning loss.
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Primary Environmental Effects
Knocked down trees, bury wildlife.
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Secondary Social Effects
Loss of loved ones.
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Secondary Economical Effects
High Insurance claims and economy damage.
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Secondary Environmental Effects
Flash Floods and increased future avalanches.
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Ways to reduce impacts of avalanches.
Road/Railway tunnels, Land Use Zoning, Snow fences, Communication, Predictions, Reforestation, Explosions.
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What is a Wildfire?
A large, uncontrollable fire breakout in dry areas and is spread by wind. Mainly caused by people or nature and lasts for a long time.
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Human Causes of Wildfires.
Matches, Campfires, Cigarettes, Broken Glass, Train Wheel Sparks, Barbecues.
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Physical Causes of Wildfires
Lightning, Spontaneous Heating, Volcanic Eruptions, Hot Dry Weather.
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What is Lightning?
Electrical discharge between cloud and ground.
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How does Lightning form? P1
1) UV radiation hits ground. 2) Ground warms and hot air rises. 3) As air rises, it cools and condenses. 4) Cloud forms and gets bigger. 5) Ice Crystals form and collide with each other.
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How does Lightning form? P2
6) Electrons are released and particles are either negatively or positively charged. 7) Lightning occurs inside cloud. 8) Negative particles are attractive to positively charged ground and lightning occurs.
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What is a sinkhole?
A cavity in the ground caused by erosion or unstable rock underground.
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How does a Sinkhole form?
Precipitation, Acidification, Infiltration, Erosion, Cavity Formation., Thin Rock Thick Soil, Collapse.
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How does amount of water affect Sinkhole? P1
Too much: caused by hurricanes etc. Rock wears out or clay dissolves and collapse.
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How does amount of water affect Sinkhole? P2
Too Little: Irrigation: caused by droughts etc. Clay or rock becomes dry or brittle
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types of bedrock
salt, gypsum, limestone, dolomite
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Causes of Sinkholes
Karst Terrain, Hurricanes, Droughts, Heavy Rainfall, Construction, Vibrations, Mining, Weight, Traffic, Water Pipes.
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Types of Sinkholes
Cover Collapse, Cover Subsidence, Solution
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Cover Collapse
Happens in overburdens with clay and soil. Bedrock forms a cavity and sediment spills into it from the overburden. As the cavity continues to form, more sediment falls until it is so thin it collapses. Very Dangerous. happens quickly
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Cover Subsidence.
Overburden- sand and soil. Bedrock forms cavities, sediment falls into the hole and overburden becomes less dense and weak. Happens over long time then collapses. Noticeable dips not that dangerous
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Solution.
Not much soil or vegetation in overburden. Bedrock forms cavities with debris trapping any infiltrated water. over time it becomes a pond. not that dangerous unless pond water drains and reaches the bottom layer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the types of avalanches.

Back

Loose Snow: Common on steep slopes, happens after fresh snowfall when it doesn't have enough time to compact.

Card 3

Front

What is loose snow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is slab?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Powdered Snow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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