Geography- Restless Earth

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Name 3 features of Continental Crust.
Older the oceanic, less dense and it can not sink into the mantle
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Name 3 features of Oceanic Crust.
Newer than continental, denser and it can sink into the mantle
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What is continental drift?
Heat from RADIOACTIVE DECAY heats up the rock so it rises to the LITHOSPHERE. The rocks rises to a certain point where it is cooler and so it falls creating CONVECTION CURRENTS. This makes the TECTONIC PLATES move apart so continental drift happens.
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Explain what happens at a destructive plate margin.
When the oceanic crust goes under (subducts) the continental crust. Molten rock then builds to make a volcano.
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Explain what happens at a constructive plate margin.
The two plates move apart and the hot molten rises rises and cools at the top to form new land.
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Explain what happens at a conservative plate margin.
The two plates move side by side.
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What is collision?
When the two pieces of crust push up against each other to form a fold mountain
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What are fold mountains?
Places where layers of rock have been crumpled as they have been forced together. They can be formed at destructive or collisional plate boundaries.
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How are fold mountains formed?
Sediment ACCUMULATES in shallow seas creating layered sedimentary rocks-COMPRESSION takes place. Two plates move together which starts to CRUMPLE the rocks. The rocks start to form folds which are pushed upwards.
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Where is an example of a fold mountains?
The Andes, west of the Pacific Ocean.
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What are fold mountains used for?
Farming, mining, HEP (hydro electric power), tourism.
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How are mid ocean ridges formed?
Two OCEANIC plates move apart. FISSURE volcanoes are formed as MAGMA is released to the surface. As the magma cools, new crust is formed.
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What are ocean trenches?
Deep water areas that run along a coastline. They mark the point where an oceanic crust is being pushed under by the continental crust.
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What is a shield volcano?
Shaped like a shield. Their lava flows are hot and fluid.
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What is a composite volcano?
A tall and cone shaped. Eruptions are pyroclastic flow rather than lava flow.
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What is a dome volcano?
Dome shaped. Thick lava that flows slowly and hardens quickly.
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Give an example of a volcano eruption.
Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo. Erupted on the 17th January 2002.
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What is a supervolcano?
A volcano on a massive scale. It can erupt at least 1,000km3 of material. They are flat and 20km long.
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describe the formation of a supervolcano.
RISING MAGMA cannot escape and a large BULGE appears on the SURFACE. CRACKS appear and GAS and ASH erupt from the MAGMA CHAMBER. The MAGMA CHAMBER COLLAPSES forming a depression called and CALDERA.
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Where is an example of a supervolcano?
Yellow Stone National Park, Wyoming, America
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Where is an example of an earthquake in a developed country?
Kobe, Japan. 17th January 1995. 6,434 died and over 40,000 injured.
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Where is an example of an earthquake in an undeveloped country?
Haiti. 12th January 2010. 230,000 killed and 2 million affected
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What are the layers of the earth and describe them.
Crust- 6 to 35km thick, oceanic and continental crust. Mantle- 2,900km thick, split into the asthenosphere and mesosphere. Outer core- 2,000km thick, liquid, 4,000 to 5,000 degrees. Inner core- 2,900 thick, 5,000 to 6,000 degrees, solid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name 3 features of Oceanic Crust.

Back

Newer than continental, denser and it can sink into the mantle

Card 3

Front

What is continental drift?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain what happens at a destructive plate margin.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain what happens at a constructive plate margin.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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