Geography - POPULATION CHANGE

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  • Created by: Zaral1999
  • Created on: 13-06-16 11:15
Define population distribution
Description of how people are spread across an area
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Define population density
The number of people per square kilometre. The unit used to measure population density.
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Reasons for sparsely populated areas
-Extreme conditions (the Sahara Desert) -High land (Himalayas) -Infertile land -Unstable governments (Afghanistan)
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Reasons for densely populated areas
-Many resources (coal in France) -Good job opportunities & education (USA) -Fertile soils (The Ganges Valley) -Temperate climate (UK)
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Population distribution of china
North: sparse (extreme conditions GOBI DESERT) East: dense (drainage basin, fertile land, YANGTZE RIVER) East: dense (good trade links, EAST CHINA SEA megacities can develop-SHANGHAI) West: sparse (2000m above sea level TIBETAN PLATEAU+MOUNTAINS)
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Population distribution of UK
North: sparse (too wet+cold to grow things SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS) Midlands: dense (history of manufacture+well established infrastructure) South: dense (attractive, temperate coast for retirement BRIGHTON) West: sparse (wet, hilly, remote CENTRAL WALES)
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Define population explosion
Used to describe an unprecedented rapid rise in the number of people living in an area. Has happened in LICs and MICs over the last few decades
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Define birth & death rate
Number of live babies born per 1000 people per year. Number of deaths per 1000 people per year
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Natural increase/decrease
The difference between birth and death rate (sometimes as a percentage)
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Demographic Transition model STAGE 1
Birth rate: High and fluctuating Death Rate: High and fluctuating Population: Fluctuates but relatively stable AMAZONIAN TRIBES
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Demographic Transition model STAGE 2
Birth rate: Remains high Death Rate: Starts to fall rapidly Population: Very rapid population increase
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Demographic Transition model STAGE 3
Birth rate: Falls rapidly Death Rate: Continues to fall Population: Population increases, but at a slower rate CHINA
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Demographic Transition model STAGE 4
Birth rate: Remains low but fluctuates with baby booms Death Rate: Remains low Population: Steady, very low increase USA
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Demographic Transition model STAGE 5
Birth rate: Low Death Rate: Low but higher than birth rate Population: Slowly decreases GERMANY
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Youthful population CASE STUDY
CHINA: ONE CHILD POLICY. In 1979 1/4 of the worlds population lived in China + there were not enough resources to go round
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Youthful population incentives
-Cash bonuses -Free education -Free medical care -Better housing -Better child care & maternity leave lengthened
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Youthful population disincentives
-Heavy fines & loss of all privileges -Forced sterilisations/abortions -People monitored by 'granny police' -Couples must ask permission to have a child -Couples who had a job with the government would be sacked
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Increasing birth rate CASE STUDY
SINGAPORE:1987 3 OR MORE POLICY. In late 1980's Singapore government realised that the low birth rate meant they would not have enough workers
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Increasing birth rate incentives
$3000 gift for first 2 children $6000 for next 2. Mothers maternity leave for 3 months. Fathers paternity leave for 3 days. 2nd to 4th children have a bank account in which the government matches some of the money put in. More children=bigger flat
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Increasing birth rate disincentives
-Couples with 1 or no children are only entitled to a 3 room flat -Not allowed to pick the school their children go to -Women with less than 3 children must undergo counselling before being allowed to get sterilised -Do not receive financial packages
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Ageing population CASE STUDY advantages
Japan: The purchasing power power of the 'grey yen' will lead to greater economic growth. -Many pensioners living alone has led to the invention of products such as the Taizo robot & a kettle that sends an email to up to 3 people when turned on
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Ageing population CASE STUDY disadvantages
Japan: Depleting work force. Most workers in Tokyo's subway are pensioners. By 2025 there will be only 2 taxpayers to every pensioner compared with 1990's 6:1. Controversial health insurance for over 75s 'hurry up and die'. Money cut after 100 days
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define population density

Back

The number of people per square kilometre. The unit used to measure population density.

Card 3

Front

Reasons for sparsely populated areas

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reasons for densely populated areas

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Population distribution of china

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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