Geography - Population Change

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Define population distribution
How spread out of a population is described as even or uneven
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Define population density
number of people per km2 described as dense or sparse
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3 reasons for sparse global locations (use examples)
1- limited job opportunities, amazon rainforest 2- countries with unstable govt increasing migration, Afghanistan 3- high land is mountainous and inhospitable, Himalayas
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3 reasons for dense global locations (use examples)
1- areas rich in resources, France 2- countries with stable government, Singapore 3- good good opportunities in large cities, HICs= NYC, LICs= Nairobi
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Define birth rate
number of live births per year per 1000 of the population
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Define death rate
number of deaths per year per 1000 of the population
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Define natural increase
difference between birth rate and death rate
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What places in the UK have a high population density and why?
Aberdeen- due to oil deposits based on Northern sea has seen large growth in industry. London- modern industries attract workers. Brighton- popular for retirees due to warm weather
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What place in the Uk has a low population density and why?
Northern Scotland- due to cold weather, soils infertile and is a mountainous area
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What medical factors cause BR+DR to change? use example
new treatment to illnesses, inoculations for childhood diseases, LICs medical cares improved so people having less children. EG-2006 Health foundation launched 3year programme improving medical care for mothers+babies in Malawi.
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What economic factors cause BR+DR to change? use example
HIC couples don't want to change lifestyles for children, DR in the UK affected by homeless as high unemployment areas such as ports. EG- Dorset has lowest at 700 per 100,000, DR, Glasgow has highest DR at 1420 per 100,000
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What social factors cause BR+DR to change? use example
educating women on ways to control fertility, raising avg age of marriage+having children. EG- marrying later has gone up from 24 in 1960 to 30 in 2010, some countries/religions don't allow birth pills
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Whats the dependancy ration?
(% under 15)+(% over 65) x 100 divided by % between 15 and 64
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What does the DTM show?
it changes over time as countries pass through the different stages AND its shown over space and over time
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state the different stages in DTM model
1-very high BR+DR EG=Amazon tribes 2-BR still high+DR decreases due to medical improvements+sanitation+water supply. 3-BR falls rapidly+DR still decreasing (new industrialised countries) 4- BR+DR are low (UK). 5- DR higher than BR (Germany)
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Why did China want to reduce its BR?
because in 1979 China had a quasar of the worlds population so they introduced the 'one child policy'
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incentives of only having one child in china?
free education+medical care, cash bonuses, longer maternity leave and preferential housing agreements
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disincentives of having more than one child in china?
all privileges are lost+heavy fines, granny police monitor neighbours to keep track of the status pf each family, women were pressured for abortions
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why did Singapore want to increase there BR?
In 1960s Singapore had high BR+lowering DR between the DTM stage 2, so the '2 is enough' policy was introduced. But in 1980s there was a fall in BR so the '3 or more policy' was introduced
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Incentives of having 3 or more children in Singapore?
cash gifts=$3000 each for 1-2 children and $6000 for 3-children. 3 months maternity leave, more children leads to upgraded housing, families with children under 12 are given $95 for a maid allowance, received 5 day paid childcare leave a year.
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Positive consequences of ageing population?
increase in amount of leisure time means growth in no of jobs available. Unemployment rates will decrease as % of elderly increases. Elderly can help community by providing their time to help charities.
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Negative consequences of ageing population?
money spent of education may have to be cut to finance the elderly, people are living longer meaning a larger housing demand+using up more land. Greater demand on health care+support services
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Positive consequences of youthful population?
children can look after their parents so less money is spent on nursing homes. Theres a large acting workforce available for economic growth
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Negative consequences of youthful population?
disease among children is widespread with measles+diarrhoea sometimes leading to death due to lack of vaccines. 40% of Africa's populations under 15 putting strain on economy with health care, education+food.
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What are the advantages of the ageing population in Japan?
The Greying Yen= pensioners are buying luxury goods,travelling+indulging in expensive food leading to economic growth. Technology= Online kettle which automatically sends 3 emails when online. Internet linked sensors attached to fridges/doors
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What are the disadvantages of the ageing population in Japan?
Workforce= proportion of workforce 2 pensioners is dropping+labour force in the 15-24 age stood at 8m 1990, shrink to 6.3m by 2015. Pensions= amount of money pensioners receive will decrease. Health care= 93% of over 60s live at home. (health tax)
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Card 2


Define population density


number of people per km2 described as dense or sparse

Card 3


3 reasons for sparse global locations (use examples)


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Card 4


3 reasons for dense global locations (use examples)


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Card 5


Define birth rate


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