Geography - Population and settlement

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 30-03-16 15:49
What is the population density of an area measured as?
The number of people per square kilometre.
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If a country had a large number of people per square kilometre would they be densely or sparsely populated?
Densely populated.
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If an area is sparsely populated what does that mean?
It means that there is a small number of people per square kilometre.
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What areas tend to be densely populated?
Areas with nice climates, areas rich in resources, areas where there is work and areas with fertile soil for farming.
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What is the definition of birth rate?
The number of live babies born per 1,000 of the population each year.
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What is the definition of death rate?
The number of deaths per 1,000 of the population each year.
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What is the natural population increase?
In a country if the birth rate is high and the death rate is low then the population will increase naturally.
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What is happening to the overall population in most MEDCs?
It is growing very slowly or declining.
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Why is this happening in the MEDCs?
Because the falling death rate tend to encourage people to have less children.
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What is happening to the overall population in most LEDCs?
It is increasing.
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Why is this happening in LEDCs?
Because the birth rate is much higher than the death rates.
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What does the demographic transition model show?
It shows how the growth of population changes over time.
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What does a population pyramid show?
It shows a countries population by age and gender.
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What is the definition of infant mortality rate?
The number of babies who die under the age of five years per 1,000 people.
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What is the definition of young dependants?
Children who are dependent on older economically active people.
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What is the definition of elderly dependants?
People who are dependent on younger economically active people.
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What can population pyramids be used for other than to display a countries population?
It can be used to predict changes in the population and plan for the future.
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What the term for when an area hasn't got enough resources for the people living in it?
Overpopulation or overpopulated.
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What effects does overpopulation have in rural areas?
Not enough schools, not enough land, inadequate health services, lack of clean water and sanitation, food shortages, overgrazing and deforestation.
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What effects does overpopulation have in urban areas?
Overcrowding, unemployment, growth of shanty towns, traffic congestion, overcrowded schools, inadequate health services and problems of waste disposal.
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What can governments do to tackle the problem of over population?
Restrict family size by law, persuade people to have smaller families, encourage people to marry later and improve healthcare.
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Why is an ageing population bad?
It means there is more older people who are dependent on a smaller working population.
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What are the main reasons for an ageing population?
The increased life expectancy and low birth rates.
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What are the consequences of an ageing population?
House prices in popular retirement places may rise, the cost of supporting the elderly through state pension is increasing and there is a greater demand on medical services.
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What are the solutions to an ageing population?
Raising the age of retirement, Raising taxes on the working population, providing incentives for people to have more children and encouraging the immigration of skilled workers to fill the gaps.
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What is migration?
The movement of people from one region or country to another.
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What is Immigration?
People entering a region or country.
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What could the push factors for migration be?
Low wages or standard of living, lack of job opportunities, poor quality of life, lack of amenities, conflict and natural hazards.
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What could the pull factors for migration be?
High wages or improved standard of living, improved job opportunities, better amenities or services, improved quality of life, better environment, freedom from oppression.
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What line was made to show the MEDCs from LEDCs?
The north-south line.
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What is the definition of urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people who live in towns and cities. (people moving from the countryside to the cities)
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What is the definition of urban growth?
The expansion of towns and cities so that they cover more land, as well as gaining larger populations.
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Where does urbanisation happen the most currently?
LEDCs
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Why are cities in LEDCs growing rapidly?
Natural population increase and rural-to-urban migration.
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Why is urbanisation helping LEDCs develop economically?
Industrial growth provides employment, new businesses benefit the local economy and cities provide better services than most rural areas.
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What are the main problems with shanty towns?
They are very crowded, they have few basic services and disease is common meaning high infant mortality rate.
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What is counter-urbanisation?
When people and businesses move away from large urban centres to small towns or villages.
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What are the benefits of counter-urbanisation?
Benefits are that there are more people in the village to support local activities, old building get renovated, jobs are created locally and younger people will settle in villages.
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What are the problems caused by counter-urbanisation?
House prices go up and locals are priced out, greenbelt land may be built on, more cars meaning increased traffic, main roads become congested at commuting time and tension may develop between old residents and newcomers.
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What are the aims of putting green belt areas around cities?
To stop urban sprawl, to prevent towns and cities merging with each other, to protect the countryside and to encourage development within the town not around it.
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What is a brownfield site?
A site that has already been build on.
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Name the categories of land use in a city.
Residential, open space, commercial and green belt.
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What can be found in the CBD?
High-rise buildings, shops, offices, banks and leisure facilities.
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Why are these found in the CBD?
Because the CBD is the most accessible part of the city and people all over the city can reach it easily.
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What happens if too many businesses move away from the CBD?
There is a danger that it will create a bad city centre, the doghtnut effect.
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What housing is found in the inner-city areas?
Poor quality terraced housing or high-rise council flats.
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what type of people are found in the inner-city area?
Low-income families, older people living on the state pension, ethnic minority's and newcomers to the city like students.
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What are councils and the government doing to regenerate some of the cities?
They are renovating housing and building new more attractive flats to replace some of the housing.
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What types of housing do you find in the the outer city?
Detached houses, semi-detached houses, bungalows and flats.
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Why is there such a variety of houses in the outer city?
Because different people need and can afford different sorts of houses and building styles have changed alot.
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What is the rural-urban fringe?
The area where it slowly turns from a built up urban area to the countryside.
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What are problems with developments in the rural-urban fringe?
Countryside is lost as the town spreads outwards, traffic increases causing more congestion and inner city brownfield sites remain undeveloped.
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How can we make cities more sustainable?
Improve public transport, use brownfield sites for redevelopments, re-use some of our waste, provide more open space, use renewable energy sources, build zero-carbon homes and officers and use local food suppliers.
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How do the houses in Bed-ZED generate power?
Through wind turbines and biomass boilers.
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Name some convenience goods.
Bread, milk, newspapers, groceries etc.
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Name some comparison goods.
Clothes, shoes, home furnishings etc.
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Name some high-order goods.
Expensive clothes, electrical equipment and furniture etc.
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Why is the distribution of shops and shopping centres more complex now?
Improvements to roads and motorways mean shopping centres can be developed away from the city centre but still be quick to get to, and now you can order most things online.
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Why have out-of-town shopping centres been developed away from the city centre?
Land values are lower on the outskirts of a city, there is more space meaning they can expand easily and they can be near motorways making access easier for deliveries and customers.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

If a country had a large number of people per square kilometre would they be densely or sparsely populated?

Back

Densely populated.

Card 3

Front

If an area is sparsely populated what does that mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What areas tend to be densely populated?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the definition of birth rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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