Geography part A Unit 1C

  • Created by: Amy_5639
  • Created on: 06-04-18 16:01
1.How does freeze-thaw weathering break up rock?
When the water freezes it expands, when the water thaws it contracts. Repeating freezing and thawing widens the cracks and causes the rock to break up.
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2.Describe the process of chemical weathering.
The breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition
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3.What are the three types of mass movement?
Slides, slumps, rockfalls
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4.What are the three types of erosion caused by waves? Explain how they work.
Hydraulic power-waves crash against the rock compressing the air,widening the cracks.Abrasion-eroded particles in water scrape against the rock removing small pieces.Attrition-eroded particles in water smash each other and break into smaller pieces
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5.Give the characteristics of destructive waves.
High frequency, high, steep, backwash is greater than swash
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6.How does a wave-cut platform form?
Waves erode at the foot of the cliff forming a wave-cut notch, which is enlarged as erosion continues. The rock above the notch becomes unstable and collapses. The collapsed material gets washed away leaving behind a wave-cut platform.
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7.Are headlads made of more or less resistant rock?
More resistant
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8.Describe how erosion can turn a crack in a cliff into a cave.
The continuation of erosion (mainly hydraulic power and abrasion) gradually widens the cracks causing a cave to form
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9.What is a stack?
An isolated rock that's separate from the headland
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10.How does longshore drift transport sediment along the coast?
Waves follow direction of the prevailing wind.They hit the coast at an oblique angle(not right angle). The swash carries material up the beach in same direction of waves. The backwash then carries material down the beach at right angles back to sea
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11.Apart from longshore drift, what are the four other processes of transport?
Traction, suspension, saltation, solution
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12a.When does deposition occur?
It occurs when water carrying sediment slows down so that it isn't moving fast enough to carry so much sediment
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12b.What can increase the amount of material that is deposited?
There's lots of erosion elsewhere on the coast, so there's lot of material available. Theres lots of transportation of material into the area
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13.What are the characteristics of constructive waves?
Low frequency, low, long, swash is more powerful than backwash
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14.What are the characteristics of shingle beaches?
Steep, narrow, large particles, weak backwash
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15.Where do spits form?
They form at sharp bends in the coastline e.g. at a river mouth
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16.How do bars form?
They form when a spit joins two headlands together
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17.How do sand dunes form?
They are formed when sand deposited by longshore drift is moved up the beach by wind
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18.Why can't cracks, caves and arches be seen on a map?
They can't be seen because of the rock above them
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19.What do stacks look like on a map?
Stacks look like little blobs in the sea
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20.How are cliffs shown on a map?
Cliffs are shown as little black lines
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21.On maps, what do speckles on top of yellow shading tell you?
It tells you that the area is a shingle beach
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22a.Name a coastal area which has erosional and depositional landforms.
Dorset Coast
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22b.Name one erosional landform in that area.
Arch-Durdle Door
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22c.Name one depositional landform in that area.
Tombola-Chesil Beach
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23.Describe the difference between hard engineering and soft engineering coastal management strategies.
Hard engineering=man-made structures built to control the flow of the sea and reduce flooding and erosion. Soft engineering=schemes set up using knowledge of the sea and it's processes to reduce the effects of flooding and erosion.
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24.What are two disadvantages of using sea walls as a coastal defence?
They create a strong backwash which erodes under the wall, and they're very expensive to build and maintain.
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25.What are gabions?
A wall of wire cages filled with rocks usually built at the foot of cliffs
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26.What is rock armour?
Boulders that are piled up along the coast. Also sometimes called rip-rap.
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27a.Name two soft engineering strategies.
Beach nourishment and reprofiling, dune regeneration
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27b.Give one benefit of each strategy.
Beach nourishment and reprofiling=creates wider beaches which slow the waves Dune regeneration=wave energy is absorbed which prevents flooding and erosion
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28.What is managed retreat?
Managed retreat (also known as coastal realignment) involves removing current defences and allowing the sea to flood the land behind
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29a.For a named coastline, explain why coastal management is needed.
Along the Holderness coastline erosion is causing cliffs to collapse, so coastal management schemes are used to protect this area from erosion, such as groins and rock armour
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29b.Give examples of conflicts caused by coastal management along this coastline.
Loss of land, coastguard and lifeboat services are under threat, loss of habitat, maintaining the defences is becoming more expensive
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2.Describe the process of chemical weathering.


The breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition

Card 3


3.What are the three types of mass movement?


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4.What are the three types of erosion caused by waves? Explain how they work.


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Card 5


5.Give the characteristics of destructive waves.


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