Geography Paper 2- Urban Issues + Challenges

What is urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas
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What makes people in HIC can live in rural areas?
Good transport + communication networks
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Where are the fastest rates of urbanisation?
In LIC's
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What is rural-urban migration?
Movement of people from countryside to cities
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What are push factors?
Things that encourage people to leave an area
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What are pull factors?
Things that encourage people to move to an area
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What are some push factors?
Natural disasters, desertification,conflict/war and mechanisation of agricultural equipment
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What are some pull factors?
More jobs, education, health care, family and quality of life
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What else causes urbanisation?
Natural increase
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What is natural increase?
Birth rate higher than death rate
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What are high rates of urbanisation leading to?
Megacities
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What is a megacity?
A city with more than 10 million people
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What is the first social opportunity of urban growth?
Access to better services- health and education
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What is the second social opportunity of urban growth?
Better resources- water and electricity
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What is the first economic opportunity of urban growth?
Increase economic development
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What is the second economic opportunity of urban growth?
More people have factory jobs- better wages and more jobs
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What is the first social and economic challenge of urban growth?
Badly built and overcrowded settlements
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What is the social and economic challenge of urban growth?
Lack of basic services, unclean conditions
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What is the third social and economic challenge of urban growth?
No education so no job
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What is the first environmental challenge of urban growth?
Rubbish not collected
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What is the second environmental challenge of urban growth?
Air pollution, sewage and chemicals in rivers
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What is the third environmental challenge of urban growth?
Road system congested and greenhouse gases emitted
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What is an example of an urban planning scheme?
Favela-Bairro Project
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Where is Rio de Janeiro?
South east Brazil
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How many squatter settlements does it have?
More than 600
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What are squatter settlements called?
Favelas
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How many people do these house?
1/5 of population more than 1 mil
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What dates did the scheme run from and to?
1995-2008
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How many people and favelas were involved?
253,000 people and 73 favelas
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What were the social improvements of the scheme?
Day care centres for kids, education and addition services
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What were the economic improvements of the scheme?
People have legal ownership of properties, training schemes to help with jobs
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What were the environmental improvements of the scheme?
Wooden buildings replaced with brick, streets widened and paved and rubbish collection services
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Where is Lagos?
A city in Nigeria
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What is the population of Lagos?
Over 21 million
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What is Lagos?
A NEE
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What does Lagos remain as?
The main financial centre for Africa
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How many migrants arrive in Lagos each year?
275,000
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What is the first social opportunity in Lagos?
More healthcare and education services (68% in Lagos have secondary education whereas 40% don't attend in rural areas)
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What is the second social opportunity in Lagos?
Electricity access for cooking and lighting, develop businesses and clean water
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What is the first economic opportunity in Lagos?
Lots of construction jobs (Eco Atlantic)
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What is the second economic opportunity in Lagos?
Thriving music and film industry (Nollywood)
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What is the population density?
20,000 per km^3
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What does high population density do?
Pressure on housing, services and infrastructure
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What percentage of Lagos's population live in slums?
60% (Makoko)
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What is the first social challenge?
Houses in Makoko flimsy, stilts on lagoon. One primary school and it is expensive
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What is the second social challenge?
Communal toilets shared by 15 households- waste into lagoon
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What is the second social challenge?
Water only from communal water point and electricity illegal. Also lots of crime.
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What is the first economic challenge?
Not enough formal jobs
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What is the second economic challenge?
People make money any way they can (Olusosun dump scaveging)
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What is the first environmental challenge?
40% waste not collected- large dumps w toxic waste
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What is the second environmental challenge?
Waste disposal and emissions not controlled- air pollution and water pollution
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What is the third environmental challenge?
Traffic congestion is bad- 2 hr commutes
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What does mineral wealth (Coal and iron) lead to?
Rapid population growth where industries developed
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Where do most urban areas develop?
In lowland areas
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Why does this happen?
They are easy to build on and have a milder climate
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Why do coastal areas attract human settlement?
Because there are sheltered bays and river estuaries suitable for building harbours
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What is the CBD?
Central business district
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What does it contain?
Public buildings, train + bus stations, shops, offices and restaurants
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What are CBD's often surrounded by?
Ring roads
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What are the suburbs?
Mainly residential areas
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What do they contain?
Semi detached houses, short and curved streets
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What is the rural urban fringe?
On the edge of the city
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What does it contain?
Farmland and open space, housing developments and retail parks
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What to look for on map for rural urban fringe?
White spaces showing fields mixed with built up areas
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What does the inner city contain?
Mainly residential with businesses and recreational parks
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What to look for on a map for inner city?
Short, parallel roads with terraced housing
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What is the first opportunity of urban change?
Immigrant communities were attracted by low cost inner city housing
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What is the second opportunity of urban change?
Opportunities for new investment
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What is the third opportunity of urban change?
Green spaces being recognised and incorporated into cities
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What is the first challenge of urban change?
Caused a decrease in wealth leaving people to move away , larger target for crime and places deprived
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What is the second challenge of urban change?
Deprived areas linked to poor access to health, education and job opportunities
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What is the third challenge of urban change?
Pressure on rural urban fringe from business parks and shopping centres
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The Cardroom estate was what?
A Manchester estate that over a few years turned into 50% being used as slums
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What was developed in replace of the estate?
New Islington
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What did this do?
1700 new homes built with a tram stop, new social facilities (hospitals, schools)
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What was Liverpool important for?
Being a port for cotton, sugar and slave ships
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What has immigration done to Liverpool?
Shaped the character of Liverpool with by 1850 1/4 of population were Irish
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What is the first social opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
Cultural mix and have a range of ethnicity which attracts tourists with different cultural foods and festivals
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What is the second social opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
Recreational and entertainmeny e.g. Albert dock is now developed with shops, restaurants and museums
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What is the third social opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
The echo arena is a sport and concert area, £1 billion spent regenerating city centre
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What is the first economic opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
Employment, many jobs e.g. Liverpool science park
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What is the second economic opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
Integrated travel, have one prepaid card to travel on all networks
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What is the first environmental opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
Increase green areas with public parks and gardens
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What is the second environmental opportunity in Liverpool due to urban change?
More cycle and pedestrian routes and wasteland to parks, 5 acre park Chavasse
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What is the first social challenge in Liverpool due to urban change?
Unhealthy lifestyles more common in deprived areas e.g. Toxteth 10 years lower Life expectancy
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What is the second social challenge in Liverpool due to urban change?
Children leave school w o basic qualifications, 9% adults in Anfield unemployed
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What is the first economic challenge in Liverpool due to urban change?
Industrial decline
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What is the second economic challenge in Liverpool due to urban change?
Regeneration = increase in inequality
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What is the first environmental challenge in Liverpool due to urban change?
Buildings derelict and used for vandalism
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What is the second environmental challenge in Liverpool due to urban change?
Pressure on greenfield sites as more houses needed
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What is urban sprawl?
Unplanned growth of urban areas
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What have been built on rural greenfield land?
Large housing estates e.g. Croxteth Park provides nice living but ecosystems destroyed
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What do out of town developments take advantage of?
Cheap and easy accessible land but leads to lots of pollution e.g. New Mersey Shopping Park
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What are commuter settlements?
Places in rural urban fringe where majority of population leave town each day for work
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What challenges does this bring?
New housing developments affect environment, house prices increase, business in this settlement suffer and pollution
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What are some ways to reduce water used for sustainable urban living?
Collect rainwater, water meters, less water usage all round
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What are some ways to reduce the use of fossil fuels for SUL.
Renewable energy, new homes energy efficient, gov schemes e.g. solar panel people can sell unused energy
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What are some benefits of building green spaces for SUL.
Cooler areas, exercise more, happier
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What are some environmental benefits for SUL.
Reduce flooding, reduce air pollution
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What are some waste recycling schemes for SUL.
Collection, recycling for larger items, websites e.g. Freecycle
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What are the environmental problems of traffic congestion?
Air pollution, leads to climate change
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What are the economic problems of traffic congestion?
People late for work, delay deliveries
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What are the social problems of traffic congestion?
Chance of accidents, delay emergency vehicles, health issues to bike and pedestrians
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What do ring roads do to reduce traffic congestion?
Keep traffic away from city, less polluted, safer and preventing congestion
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What do bus priority lanes do to reduce traffic congestion?
Stop buses held up in traffic, more attractive than driving
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What do parking restrictions do to reduce traffic congestion?
Cars don't block traffic flow
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What does congestion charging do to reduce traffic congestion?
Discourages drivers away from entering the city at peak times
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What does car sharing and carpool lanes do to reduce traffic congestion?
Fewer cars needed, only cars with 2+ people can go, traffic flow easier
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How does promoting flexible work hours help reduce traffic congestion?
People work varied houses, so flow spread throughout.
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What social things encouraged SUL in Freiburg?
Locals invest in renewable energy, financial investors received football tickets, financial rewards to people who compost
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What economic thing encouraged SUL in Freiburg?
Employment, most jobs in solar department
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What are some environmental thing that encourage SUL?
Ensures resources not wasted, environment protected
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How many people employed in 1500 environmental business in Freiburg?
10,000
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How many people employed in the solar technology industry?
1000
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Freiburgs solar valley solar factory employs how many people making the solar panels?
250
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How many corks are recycled?
1million each year
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What percentage of packing waste is recycled?
88%
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How many collection points?
350
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How much waste have Freiburg reduced annually?
140,000 tonnes to 50 tonnes in 12 years
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How many homes have been provided with energy by burning waste?
28,000
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What techniques do they use to reduce water waste?
Collecting waste, pavements water can soak, flood defences around river
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What is Freiburgs energy policy based on?
Energy saving, efficient tech, use of renewable sources.
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By what date does the city hope to be 100% reliable?
2050
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How many solar panel installations were installed?
400
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How much energy do they produce per year by solar energy?
10 million KW
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Where does the largest proportion of Freiburgs energy come from?
Biomass, using waste and rapeseed oil
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How often is their integrated traffic plan updated?
Every 10 years
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Compared to other cities, Freiburg has a low car density. What is it?
Less than 500 cars per 1000 residents.
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How many km of cycle path is there?
400
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How many parking spaces?
9000 including bike and ride
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What have Freiburg done to parking spaces in some places?
Restricted them with a cost of £20,000 in Vauban district
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Because of car spaces tram journeys increased by what?
25,000 in one year
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How much did car journeys decrease by due to increase in trams?
By 30,000
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What encourage people to use the trams?
Low fares, unlimited travel in city and district
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How long is the tram network?
30km
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What is the tram network connected to?
168km of city bus routes
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What other tickets are valid for public transport?
Concert, sports and others
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What % of population live within 500m of tram line with a tram every 8 minutes?
70%
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Card 2

Front

What makes people in HIC can live in rural areas?

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Good transport + communication networks

Card 3

Front

Where are the fastest rates of urbanisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is rural-urban migration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are push factors?

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