geography paper 1

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global circulation
warm air rises at the equator at low presure, cool air falls at high pressure, at the air falls it warms again and flows back to complete the cycle
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ocean currents
transfer heat around the globe, some are powered by wind resulting from the atomospheric circulation cells, others are powered by density differences due to differences in water temperature and salinity
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1 heat transfer
the earth recieves its energy from the sun, the suns UV heat energy is most instense at the equator, this heat poweres an enormous circle of air movement called a circulation cell. hot air at the equator rises 15 km into the atmosphere.
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2 heat transfer
this air then cools and travels north and south to around 30 degrees of latitiude where it sinks,where the cells meet energy gets transferred
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3 heat transfer
when warm air rises it creates low pressure, rising air (becoming cooler and under low pressure) cannot hold as much moisture and thats why precipitation is high at the equator. when the cool dry air falls at 30 degrees of latitude north and south
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4 heat transfer
it creates high pressure. high pressue conditions have clear skies with little precipitation these areas are often adrid
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natural cuases of climate change
the earths orbit changes a small amount once every 100000 years, these are known as milankovitch cycles
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the amount of energy radiated from the sun changes over an 11 year cycle
volcanic eruptions pumpsh ash dust into the atmopshere causing a cooling effect
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large asteroid collisions can cause cooling asmaterial blocks out the sun. asteroids hitting the earth can cause huge fires which release massive amounts of CO2 which subsequently a warming effect
ocean current changes can cause cooling and warming. on the UK we have warm and wet climate becuase of warm Alantic currents, sometimes the current shifts and we get a cooler climate for a short period of time
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humans and climate change
global warming is closely associated with rising atmospheric CO2, this is a powerful greenhouse gas and is relased by many human activities such as; industry, transport, energy production and farming
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the enhanced greenhouse effect
heat (UV rays) from the sun reaches the earths atmosphere; some is reflected back into space, the land and oceans absorb the heat, the land and oceans then radiate infared heat back into the atmosphere
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greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap some of the heat (necessary for life on earth), human activity increases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leading to more warming
what is the evidence? six facts to remember
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1. global temperatures are rising - for example in 2015 the average global temperature was 1 degress celcius above the average global temperature in 1850-1900
2. atmospheric CO2 levels are rising in parallel with global temperatures this is mostly due to human activity
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3. the oceans warmed by 0.11 degrees celcius per decade between 1971 and 2010
4. sea levels rose globally by about 14cm during the 20th century
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5. arctic sea ice overs 13% less of the sea each decade
6. extreme weather events have become more frequent: heat extremes are five times more common now than a century ago for example.
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tropical cyclones
only form when sea water id 26.5 degress celcius and over, this limits their geographical distribution (they occur in the tropics starting between 5` and 30` of latitude), they happen in summer and late autumn when sea water gets warmest
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tropical cyclones have key characteristics
1. low pressure - very warm, moist air rises through the atmosphere, sucking more air up behind it
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2. rotation - the earths spin (coriolis force) helps the rising air to spiral and drags in strong winds (there isnt much spin at the equator)
3. structure - tropical cyclones for a cylinder of rising, spiralling air surrounding an eye of decending, high presure air, they are up to 640km wide and 10km high
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tropical cyclone movement
tropical cyclones start in the trpics - warm water
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they move westwards because winds blow from the east around the equator, and they spin away from the equator
some tropical cyclones reach a belt of winds blowing from the west, this makes them change direction
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tropical cyclones can travel 640km a day
the saffir simpson scale classifies tropical cyclones into five categories
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what makes a tropical cyclone intensify and dissipate
intensify when; water temperatures are warm - over 26.5 degrees celcius, there is low wind sheer, there is high humidity
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dissipate when; reach land ecause they lose energy (powered by warm water), move into areas of colder water, run into other weather systems where winds are blowing in different directions
how do tropical cyclones form?
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1. warm sea temperature
2. high humidity - there needs to be a lot of moisture in the atmosphere
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3. rapid cooling - rising air must condense quickly to generate the huge amounts of energy powering a tropical cyclone
4. low wind shear - if winds are blowing in diffeent directions up through the atmosphere, the cyclone wont form
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5. coriolis force to give the cyclone spin - this isnt usually strong enough within 5` latitude of the equator
6. pre-existing low-pressure disturbances - tropical cyclones usually form when smaller stroms come together
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tropical cyclones hazards and impacts
physical - tropical cyclones are very destructive with strong winds (100km to 300km per hour) and intense rainfall (at least 100mm in 24 hours)
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the most dangerous physical hazards for humans are secondary hazards triggerd by tropical cyclones
storm surges, landslides and costal flooding
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strom surges
as the tropical cyclone moves towards the coast the sea gets shallower, water pushed up by the wind in front of the storm has nowhere to go but up and onto the land, low atmospheric pressure also increases the surge
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costal flooding
storm surges can flood large areas of the coast if the land is low lying. costal flooding has reached 20km inland in some cases
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landslides
rainfall is heavy and intense during tropical cyclones. 200-300mm of rain falling in just a few hours causes flash flooding and triggers landslides on unstable slopes (this instability is often linked to deforestation)
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weather forcasting and satellites
used to spot a tropical cyclone forming and track its progress. forecasters can predict its track and estimate likely storm surge heights and rainfall level
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different factors combine to make countries more or less vunerable
physical - low-lying costal areas (where lots of people live) e.g. low-lying pacific islands
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social - poor areas are often hit worst because poor people live at high density, in low-lying areas in poor quality housing
economic - rich, developed countires have better prediction, protection and evacuation technology, this make them less vunerable
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tectonics
crust - solid and ridgid - tectonic plates plates move on top of the asthenosphere - a solid but `plastic` layer under suh high presure that the rock flows
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lower layer of the mantle is liquid magma at 3000 degress celcius
the outer core is liquid iron and nickle temperatures are 4000-6000 degress celcius
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the inner core is iron at temperatures of 5000-6000 degrees celcius, the pressure is so high that this iron is solid
how convection currents contribute to plate movement
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1. the core heats the molten rock in the mantle to create a convection current
2. heated rock from the mantle rises to the earths surface
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3. at the surface the convection current moves the tectonic plates in the crust
4. molten rock cools and flows back to the core to be reheated
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density - there are two tyes of crust: continental crust and oceanic crust
continental crust is mainly granite, while oceanic crust is mainly basalt, continental crust is less dense than oceanic crust, both continental crust and oceanic crust are less dense than rocks of the asthenosphere
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plate boundries and hot spots
convergent plate boundaries - e.g. nazca plate and south american plate, two plate collide, one plate flows beneath another (subduction), many earthquakes and volcanoes
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divergent plate boundaries - e.g. eurasian and north american plate, rising convection currents pull crust apart forming volcanic ridge e.g. mid alantic ridge
conservative plate boundaries - e.g. san andreasfault, california, two plates slide pat eachother, earthquakes
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collision plate boundaries - e.g. indo australian and eurasian plate, two continental plates collide the two plates buckle, many earthquakes
hotspots - points on the earths crust with very high heat flow, which is linked to increased volcanic activity, some are on plate boundaries but strangely many are not
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shield volcanoes (erupt frequently but not violent)
found on constructive plate boundaries or hotspots, formed by eruptions of thin, runny lava which flows a long way before it solidifies, gently sloping sides and wide base, contains basaltic magma which is very hot with low silica and gas content
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composite volcanoes (erupt infrequently but violently)
found on destructive plate boundaries, formed by eruptions of viscous, sticky lava and ash that dont flow far, steep sloping sides, narrow base, made up of layers of thick lava/ash, andesitic magma which contans silica and gas, pyroclastic flows
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epicentre - the point on the surface directly above the focus
focus - the central point of the earthquake deep under the surface where the earthquake actually happens
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earthquake magnitude - a measure of the size of the earthquake
earthquakes occur on all plate boundaries but are most common on convergent boundaries
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what is needed after a earthquake?
trained volunteers to help the njured people and to clear away the debris
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clean water to prevent the spread of disease
food because often shops, towns, roads and farms ahve been damaged
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radio communication because phones will often not work
medical help to care for the injured people
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a plan to evacuate the area if needed
building in earthquake areas
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installing a eing beam (band of concreate) at roof level to stop walls falling outwards
very strong frameork in skyscrapers
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strengthening walls
making foundations from rubber and steel which can move slightly
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digging deeper fundations
reinforcing gas and water pipes so they do not break
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development
measures how advanced a country is compared to others, it is about the standard of living in a country - whether people can afford the things they need to survive also includes the quality of life within a country
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measuring development
can be measured using statistics for economic indicators and social indicators
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some factors to consider when evaluating development
ECONOMIC - income,type of industries, secrurity of jobs
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PHYSICAL AND WELL-BEING - diet, access to clean water, enviroment (including climate, hazards, etc)
MENTAL WELL-BEING - freedon, security, happiness
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SOCIAL - access to eductation, access to health care, access to leisure facillities
economic indicators
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GDP - Gross Domestic Product is the total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year, its often divided by the population of that country to give GDP per capita
HDI - Human Dvelopment Index puts together measurements of a countrys gross national income per capita (like GDP) life expectancy and years in education to provide a figure that represents a countrys development level
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political indicators (what a government is likelt to be doing for its country)
is it well governed? is there free speech? is there corruption?
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HDI scores a country between 0 and 1
0.80 and over = high development, 0.50-
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causes of global inequality
SOCIAL - education, health Economic AND POLITICAL = government systems, international relations HISTORICAL = colonialism, neo-colonialism ENVIROMENTAL = climate, topography
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population pyramids
emerging countries have higher fertility rates - which gives their pyramids a broad base
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developed countries have lower fertility rates - a narrower base than sides. emerging countires have a youthful population: most people under 30
developed countires have an ageing population: fewer young people, and increasing life expectancy
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rostrows modernisation theory
problems - it assumes that all countries start at the same level of development
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it dosent consider the quality or quantity of a countrys resources, popuation or climate/natural hazards,
its out of date and based on the 19th and 19th century developemnt of European countries
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it fails to consider that European development came at the expenses of other countries (colonisation)
stages of the rostow model
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1. the traditional society - subsitence/simple technology/barter
2. pre-conditions for take off - primary prodcuts/export/specialising/investement/infrastructure
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3. take off - specialising/start of domestic market/increased productivity
4. drive to maturity - import subsitution/investment/growth of domestic market
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5. high mass comsumption - servicesector/consumer goods/world class/infrastructure
franks dependency theory - the idea hat developing countires cant develop because they are dependent on developed contires, the mst developed countries have the economic and political power to exploit less developed countries
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franks dependency theory problems
was written in the 1950s so is outdated - today, some less developed countires are developing quickly e.g. china and india which may show the dependancy theory dosent work (or only applies to some places)
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it dosent take account of other factors which may limit development such as natural disatsers, lack or resources, conflict etc
types of development
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top-down developement
large scale projects that aim at national level or regional level development, very expensive projects often funded by iinternational development banks, sophisticated technology that neds experts to intall and maintain
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bottom-up development
local-scale projects aim to benefit a village or small group of communities, very cheap compared to top-down but usually funded by the vilage its self, straightforward technology that local people can learn to operate and reapair
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globalisation - what is it?
economic interests and a desire to make profits have encouraged companies from developed countries to produce in countries where labour is cheap and then to sell the products all over the world
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the pulls countries together in a global economy (globalisation)
trade connections between countries has led to interdependence between them, countries trade because one country has something the other country dosent
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approaches to development
NGO - non governmental organisation (e.g. the charity aid)
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IGO - intergovernmental organisation (e.g. the united nations) intermediate technology - simple technology that local peope operate and maintain themselves
TNC - transnational company
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NGO- led intermediate technology +
targeted at specific needs of local people (e.g. supply of clean water from a new well)
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generates jobs among local people (e.g. repairing technology training users)
NGO- led intermediate technology -
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goverments often rely on NGOs instead of developing ther own systems to help their people
lack of data about how successful NGO schemes really are; not as accountable as IGOs
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IGO-funded large infrastructures +
can access very large sums of money from IGOs like the world bank
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large infrastructure developments can benefit hundreds of thousands of people
IGO-funded large infrastructures -
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high tech solutions can be costly to maintain and may fail if funds run out
many local people may not actually benefit (e.g. if they have to move because a major dam projet will flood their area)
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the role of globalisation
some emerging countries have seen very rapid economic development because of globalisation
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transport technology - containerisation made global trade much cheaper
internet technology - rapid,cheap communication between countries
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TNCs - leading the outsourcing of manufacturing and services to emerging countries
government policy - emerging countries invested in infrastructure to attract TNCs set up low tax low regulation enterprise zones encouraging FDI
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demographic change
the rapid economic development of emerging countries leads to the following...
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rapid population growth
improved medical technology and health education lower infant mortality
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fertility remains high during the cntrys rapid economic growth
rising prosperity (wealth) and/or government policy starts to reduce fertility
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improved living standards and healthcare increase life expectancy
Regional changes - rural uraban migration has caused regional changes in many emerging countries
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rural-urban migrations causes rapid city growth woth young populations
rural urban migration leaves ld people in the countryside
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regions remote from rapid industrialisation and urbanisation may be much poorer
economic developement
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rural urban migrants are mainly young men -> economic development increases GNI per capita -> but a GNI average hides the growing inequality between rich and poor -> women and old men are left in the countryside
positive impacts
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new jobs and skills (brought by TNCs) especially benefit young migrants
reduced poverty worldwide - in the last 20 years naerly 1 billion people have been liften out of extreme poverty (mostly in china)
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new technologies (e.g. green revolution) can reduce workload for rural women
negative impacts
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TNCs may decide to pull out of a region or country causing un-employment
economic development has increased inequality between the very rich and the very poor in many emerging countries
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pace of change is very rapid leaving old people feeling lost and out of place
globalisation and the enviroment
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greenhouse gas - transportation, industrialisation, rising comsumption, urbanisation (air conditioning)
air and water pollution - smog in cities, sewage dumping in lakes/seas, industrial waste dumping
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population growth - reduced biodiversity, pressure on water supplies, desertfication, deforestation, more food/different food
geopolitical - the effect of geography on international poltics
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what increases a cuntrys regional influences
media power, historical influence, military power, dominating rade in the region, other countries in region depnd on it for aid and investment, if developed countries want to invest there, regional trade agreement,
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international organisations
united nations, world trade organization, international monetary fund, world bank, G20, organisation for economic co-coperation and development
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benefits of growing global importance
other countries and TNCs want to invest in them so their investments grow rapidly too
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as the emerging country gets richer other countries want to sell products and services to them
emerging countries often provide aid and investment in their region which creates close ties between countries
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emerging countries often invest in militrary strength. they may play an important part in the defence of th whole region or become important because they threaten other countries
costs of growing global importance
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developed countries block emerging countries from sharing global power
there is pressure for emerging countries to make cuts to green house emmissions
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emerging countries often come under international pressure about human rights issues within their country
other neighbouring countries may become hostile as a result of military build up in the emerging country
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benefits of foreign investment
FDI brings in a lot of money for example india recieved FDI of $24 billion in 2012 while china recieved $258 billion
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TNCs bring big brands into the emerging country which helps develop a bigger consumer market
TNCs often pay more than local companies which push up wages
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costs of foreign investment
the big brands brough by TNCs can outsell local companies products leading to reliance on TNCs for goods
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FDI is not always reliable, india lost $14 billion of FDI after the global crash of 2008 when TNCs cut back on foreign direct investment
lack of regulation of TNC activities can have enviromental consequences
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developing global regions have very rapid urbanisation, the rate of urbanisation in developed global regions is much slower, this is mainly because develped countries are already highliy urbansied for example 80% of people in the UK live in cities
calculating the rate of change = actual increase/original value x 100
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megacitiy - a city with at least 10 million inhabitants
world city - a city witch a dominant role in global processes
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urban primacy - the most important city in a country which dominates the rest of the country
hinterland - the region around a city
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rural urban migration - when people change where they live from rural areas to urban areas
international migration - when people move to live in another country
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internal migration - when people move from one part of a country to lie somewhere else within the same country
natural increase - the differences between the number of births and deaths in a year
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how do cities grown (or decine)
migration - people move to live in the city or move away from the city, natural increase
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economic development creates a multiplier effect
economic growth means people move to the city -> more people = bigger workforce so more industries -> more industries = more jobs -> more people = more customers -> more people = more houses to be built
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formal employment - jobs that pay taxes and provide workers with job security and legal protection (e.g. health and safelty laws) these jobs are hard to get in developing countries
informal employment - obs that are not regulated: informal workers pay no taxes but are not protected by the law, these jobs are easy for new arrivals in a city to get
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working conditions - in emerging and developing countries there may be unsafe, stressful or uncomfterable working conditions (e.g. hot, polluted) long working hours without enough breaks: harsh penalties for lateness and absence
urbanisation - an increase in the number of people living in cities
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suburbinisation - the movement of people, industry and jobs from the centre of the city to its outer areas
counter urbanisation - the movement of people out of the cities into the countryside (develped world process)
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regeneration - new investment into old, rundown parts of the city (often inner city)
change over times
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1. the central business district (CBD) is located where the city first developed where all the major roads join
2. a manufacturing zone develops
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3. new migrants live in this inner city zone where housing is poor but cheap and they are close to their jobs
4. developing public transport lets richer people live further out in the plesant suburbs
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5. the city gets too congestd for industry which moves out to cheaper land in the suburbs
6. the inner city areas get poorer
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7. as the city expands commuter journeys from the outer suburbs become very long some wealthier residents move back to the inner city and redevelop the old housing
reasons for population growth: natural increase (what rate), rural-urban migration (national migration), international migration, economic investment, economic growth
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what makes people want to live in a megacity?
access to jobs (often to send money back home to their famalies)
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job promotions or job transfer
access to better education for their children
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access to better healthcare
better marriage opportunities
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more entertainment options
megacity challengs - housing
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rapid population growth means there are far more people arriving in the city than there are affordable housing for them to live in, that shortage of affordable housing means people are forced to live in....
slum housing - often with mnay peole sharing each room
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shanty towns (squatter settlements) - where people build housing out of whatever materials they can find
water supply and waste removal - squatter settlements often do not have a piped water supply, at least when the settlement is first developing
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people can buy bottled water to drink but it is expensive and not everyone can afford it
some people take water from nearby rivers or streams which are often polluted and carry disease
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people often go to the toilet in wate grounds, disposing of the excrement (poo) in plastic bags left there. these wate areas smell bad and disease can spread
employment and opportunities - in megacities like mumbai most people work in the informal sector
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pay is low and not always regular or reliable
woring conditions can be dengerous
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there are no benefits or security: if people get ill and cant work they dont get any money
as pay is low many children are put to work instead of going to school this limits their opportunities in life
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megacity management
sustainability - in cities this means planning for an efficient city that uses less energy and minimises pollution to create higher living standards for all
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top-down strategies - large scale ways of improving city sustainability that are planned, funded and managed by the city governement
bottom-up strategies - small scale ways of improving city sustainability that do not involve governemnts directly they are often funded by NGOs or community organisations
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top down strategies
managing water supply, managing waste disposal, managing transport, managing air quality
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bottoms up strategies
developing city housing, developing health services, developing education
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top down advantages
large scale so probelms of the whole city can be tackled together
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city government has the political power necessary to make landowners sel their land for new development
governemnts can pass laws to change peoples behaviour - for example to stop industries dumping waste in city rivers
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top down disadvantages
impose changes on people that they may not like - for example slum clearance
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city governments can become biased - for example toward to needs of big business looking after them instead of working for poorer people in the city
top down strategies are exppensive and complicated so can end up going over budget adding extra taxes for residents
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bottom up advantages
target specific needs of particular local communities for example health workers visit slum areas, provision of affordable public toilets
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some city governments e.g. mubai refuse to recognise slums as legal so the only help people living there get is from NGOs and community initaiatives
can have postive multiplier effects for example improving child health means children can attend school more
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bottom up disadvantage
cannot fix the city wide problems like transport congestion
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city governments that should be fixing poor slum conditions may leave it to NGOs and local communities to fix the problems
by helping slum communities to improve services scheme can cause conflict with city governmentsthat want to clear sites for more profitable land use
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Card 2

Front

transfer heat around the globe, some are powered by wind resulting from the atomospheric circulation cells, others are powered by density differences due to differences in water temperature and salinity

Back

ocean currents

Card 3

Front

the earth recieves its energy from the sun, the suns UV heat energy is most instense at the equator, this heat poweres an enormous circle of air movement called a circulation cell. hot air at the equator rises 15 km into the atmosphere.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

this air then cools and travels north and south to around 30 degrees of latitiude where it sinks,where the cells meet energy gets transferred

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

when warm air rises it creates low pressure, rising air (becoming cooler and under low pressure) cannot hold as much moisture and thats why precipitation is high at the equator. when the cool dry air falls at 30 degrees of latitude north and south

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