Geography OCR B flashcards

Case Study 1
Kashmir Earthquake
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When was the earthquake in Kashmir?
(Saturday 8th) October 2005
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What magnitude was the Kashmir earthquake?
The earthquake was of magnitude 7.6
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Where was the Kashmir earthquake?
19km North of Muzzaffarabad, 60km from the capital, Islamabad
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What were the causes of the Kashmir earthquake?
The collision plate boundary at the meeting of the Eurasian and Indian plates runs through the middle of Pakistan. Tension built at this boundary was released, causing the quake
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What were the effects?
Cities and villages were razed to the ground, roads into the region were destroyed, so help could not reach those who needed it
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How many deaths were there (approximately) and why is this number so high?
Roughly 80,000 were dead, mainly due to building collapses. Many children died as they were trapped in scholol buildings
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What were the responses?
International aid was brought in; tents, blankets and medical supplies were distributed and government money was given to rebuild homes.
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What were the drawbacks to these responses?
International aid didn't reach some areas for days or even weeks, and people were having to be rescued by hand without equipment or help from emergency services. Money for houses was often used instead for food, with people in tents 3 years later
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Case Study 2
Millennium Drought, Australia
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How long did the drought last?
Roughly 8 years, from around 2001 - 2009
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Where did the drought affect?
Southeast Australia, the worst area being the Murray-Darling Basin
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What were some of the causes?
Australia has a naturally low rainfall due to the 30 degree north high-pressure belt that passes through. There was also an El Niño event that happened during this period.
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What were some effects?
Water levels in lakes and rivers fell, leading to less water across the area. Agriculture suffered, as crop harvests failed, leading to more expensive food costs. Wildfires were common, leading to 30 000 km of land being burnt
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What were some responses?
Desalination plants were erected in some cities such as Sydney, so sea water could be used for drinking. The government also invested in better drought forecasting and improved irrigation schemes
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Case Study 3
Boscastle Flood
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When did the Boscastle flood happen?
August 2004
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What caused the Boscastle Floods?
Very heavy rain fell in storms close to the village, causing two nearby rivers to burst their banks.
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Roughly how much water flooded Boscastle?
Approx. 2 billion Litres
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What were some effects of the flood?
Environmental damage to local habitats, and also environmental damage to the coast, as cars and their fuel were washed out to sea. 58 properties were damaged or destroyed, along with 4 businesses and also roads and bridges
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What were the responses?
Emergency Services responded quickly, with around 100 people airlifted to safety.
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Case Study 4
River Eden
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What is Hell Gill Force?
A waterfall near the mouth of the River Eden
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How are waterfalls made?
Waterfalls form as streams flow from hard rock to soft rock. The softer rock is eroded faster, creating a drop. where the waterfall hits the ground, a plunge pool is formed.
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How are V-Shaped valleys formed?
As fast-moving water flows over rocks, the rock is eroded downward and outward, forming a V-Shape. Freeze-Thaw weathering may further contribute to the formation of valleys.
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Case Study 5
Dorset Coast
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Give an example of an arch
Durdle Door
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How are caves, arches, stacks and stumps made?
A crack in a headland is made. This crack is widened into a cave, which is eventually eroded all the way through into an arch. When the arch collapses, a stack is made. The stack will eventually collapsed, forming a stack
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How was Chesil beach formed (name the process)?
Longshore drift
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How does longshore drift work?
sediment is carried y the swash, and deposited by the backwash, further along the beach.
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What is the difference between soft engineering and hard engineering?
Soft engineering options are often less expensive than hard engineering options. They are usually more long-term and sustainable, with less impact on the environment.
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What defenes have been deployed on Swanage beach?
Groynes, Sea wall, Beach nourishment.
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What do groynes do?
Reduce the effect of longshore drift, leaving wider beaches.
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What is beach nourishment?
Sand / sediment dredged from the sea is added to the upper areas of beaches, acting as a form of barrier.
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How much did the nourishment of Swanage beach cost?
£5 million
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Case Study 6
Crocker Biosphere Reserve
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Where is the reserve?
Northen Borneo
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How large is it?
350,585 hectares
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How is the area being protected?
There are 6permanant plots of land used for ecological studies, with a central area used for ecotourism
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What is Ecotourism?
Ecotourism is tourism that minimises damage to the environment, and supports local natives.
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What does endemic mean?
Unique to a region
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How many species are endemic to the reserve?
2
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Case Study 7
Union Glacier Camp, Antarctica
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Define sustainable management.
Management of a site that balances providing access today with preservation for the future.
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When does the camp operate?
In the Antarctic summer (Nov-Jan)
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How many people can be accomodated at the camp?
Up to 70
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What is the rule regarding penguins at the camp?
Visitors must stay further than 5m away from penguins, with groups of no more than 20 people
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Case Study 8
Antarctic Treaty
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What is the Antarctic Treaty?
An agreement signrd by 12 countries to protect and sustainably manage the Antarctic's ecosystems
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Name the 6 principles the treaty outlines
1)no mineral exploitation 2)plants & animals must be conserved 3)areas of the environment must be preserved 4)waste must be minimised 5)regulations regarding sewage discharge from vessels 6)activities must be assessed for environmental impacts
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What are the regulations regaring tourist numbers?
No more than 100 people may land at a time, and cruise ships of over 500 passengers are prevented from stopping.
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What are some restrictions on landed visitors?
Visitors must wear disinfected overboots, and and are restricted from eating, drinkng and urinating while ashore
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When was the earthquake in Kashmir?

Back

(Saturday 8th) October 2005

Card 3

Front

What magnitude was the Kashmir earthquake?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where was the Kashmir earthquake?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the causes of the Kashmir earthquake?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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