Geography Global hazards

Where is the Hadley cell?
It's the larest cell, which extends from the equator to 30 in the north and south
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Where is the Ferrel cell?
It's the middle cell, which generally occurs from the edge of the Hadley cell at 30 to 60 in the north and south
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Where is the Polar cell?
It's the smallest and weakest cell, which ccurs from the edge of the Ferrel cell to the poles at 90 .
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What happens in Hadley cell?
The winds meet near the equator and the warm air rises, causing thunder storms. The drier air then flows out towards 30 before sinking over subtropical areas.
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What happens in Ferrel cell?
The air in this cell joins the sinking air at the edge of the Hadley cell; it travels across these mid-laitude regions until the air rises along the border of cold air with the Polar cell.
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What happens in the Polar cell?
The air sinks over the higher latitudes at the poles and flows towards the mid-latitudes where it meets the Ferrel cell and rises.
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When does low pressure occur?
When the air is rising, so less air is pressuring down on the ground; air rises as it warms, leading to low pressure on the surface
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When does high pressure occur?
When there is more air pressure down onthe ground caused by air sinking; air descends as it cools, leading to high pressure at the surface
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What happens to the climate in high pressure?
It's mostly clear skies and dry, hot weather
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What happens to the climate in low pressure?
It's mostly rainy and cloudy weather
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Where is the fastest winds?
Wellington, New Zealand and Commonweath Bay, Antartica
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How fast are the winds in Wellington, New Zealand? And how long do they last?
248 kilometres per hour and the winds last up to 175 days of the year
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How fast are the winds in Commonweath Bay, Antartica? And how long do they last?
240 kilometres per hour regularly and an average wind speed of 80 kilometres per hour
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Where is the coldest place in the world?
Antarctica
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Where is the hottest place in the world?
Libya
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Where is the driest place in the world?
Death Valley USA, Aswan Egypt and Atacama Desert, South America
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Where is the wettest place in the world?
Mawsynram, India and Ureca, Guinea
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Where do tropical storms happen?
5 and 15 north and south of the equator
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When does tropical storm happen?
They occur from June to November in the northern hemisphere and November to April in southern hemisphere
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What is the causes of tropical storm?
Warm and moist air
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What causes El Nino?
Small changes in sea surface temperatures, possibly from tropical storms, which triggers the movement of water in a different direction
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What are the causes of the heatwave in the UK?
Light winds across the UK hepled to draw in hot air from the high pressure that was over central and southern Europe
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What are the consequences of the heatwave in the UK?
Some schools cancelled their sports day, car break down and road surfaces started to melt
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What were the responses of the heatwave in the UK?
Rail lines set speed restrictions, trains were cancelled and the government issued level 3 heatwave action alert
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What were the consequences in Typhoon Haiyan?
6300 people died, 1800 people were missing, 130,000 houses were destroyed and 130,000 tonnes of rice was ruined
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What were the causes in Typhoon Haiyan?
Warm waters came across the pacific ocean and low wind shear which kept the structure of the storm intact
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What were the responses in Typhoon Haiyan?
1251bevacuation centres were set up, the UK spent £50 million in aid and the Red Cross sent basic food aid
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What is the structure of the earth?
Its divided into three layers, core, mantle and crust
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How do tectonic plates move?
The hot core heats the magma, the magma rises and cools towards the crust. Magma becomes denser and sinks back into the core.
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What do convection currents do?
Build pressure and cause the tectonic plates to be pushed and pulled along different directions
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What is the process for constructive plate boundary?
Plates move away from each other, pressure is released, allowing hot magma to rise to the surface
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What is the process for destructive plate boundary?
Oceanic and continental plates move together. The oceanic plate is forced under the lighter continental plate. Friction causes melting of the oceanic plate and may trigger earthquakes.
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What is the process for colision plate boundary?
when two continental plates collide. Neither plate is forced under the other, and so both are forced up and form fold mountains.
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What is the process for conservative plate boundary?
Occurs where plates slide past each other in opposite directions, or in the same direction but at different speeds. Friction is eventually overcome and the plates slip past in a sudden movement. The shock waves created produce an earthquake.
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What is the process for hotspots plate boundary?
When it moves over a particularly hot area of the mantle, magma rises up towards the crust. It breaks through the plate where it is thin enough. Magma erupts to the surface and volcanic islands can appear.
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How does the movement of tectonic plates cause earthquakes?
The earths mantle cause tectonic plates to move, pressure builds between the plates due to friction and the plates break at the focus.
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How does the movement of tectonic plates cause shield volcanoes?
Tectonic plates move away from each other at the constructive plate boundaries. This allows magma to rise from the mantle and erupt to the surface
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What is a shield volcano?
Lower with gentle slopes
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How does the movement of tectonic plates cause composite volcanoes?
The denser plate is forced down into the mantle. The plate melts and the magma rises.
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What is a composite volcano?
Tall with steep sides
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What are the causes of E16 case study?
Earthquakes became more frequent and shallower as magma rose, the magma chamber filled up inside the volcano
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What are the consequences of E16 case study?
20 farms were destroyed and health problems for animals and humans
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What are the responses of E16 case study?
Local farm residents were evacuated, Iceland office sent text messages to the public, Icland replace bridges and drenched blocked rivers and cleared many tonnes of ash
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How does technological developments have a positive impact on mitigation in areas prone to tectonic hazard?
The action of trying to reduce the impact of a hazard by planning, predicting and preparation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where is the Ferrel cell?

Back

It's the middle cell, which generally occurs from the edge of the Hadley cell at 30 to 60 in the north and south

Card 3

Front

Where is the Polar cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in Hadley cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in Ferrel cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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