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Drainage basin
The catchment area from which a river obtains its water. An imaginary line called the watershed delimits one basin from another.
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Inputs and outputs in the hydrological cycle
evaporation, precipitation, runoff and water percolation.
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Movement within a drainage basin
Throughfall, stemflow, infiltration and percolation.
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Storage within a drainage basin
Interception storage, surface storage, soil storage and groundwater storage.
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The water balance
Within the drainage basin, the balance between inputs and outputs is known as the water balance or budget. Rivers are present on the surface only if the stores are capable of releasing water and if there is direct surface runoff.
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Water balance graph
When precipitation is greater than evapotranspiration, at first the pores of the soil are refilled with water. When the soil becomes saturated, excess water has difficulty infiltrating into the ground and may then flow over the surface.
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The storm hydrograph
The storm hydrograph shows variations in a river’s discharge over a short period of time, usually during a rainstorm. The starting and finishing level shows the base flow of the river.
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The storm hydrograph 2
As storm water enters the drainage basin the discharge rises, shown by the rising limb, to reach the peak discharge. The receding limb shows the fall in the discharge back to its base level.
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What influences the storm hydrograph
The intensity and duration of a storm, the antecedent rainfall, snow, porous soil types, size and shape of drainage basin, slope angle and temperature. Land use and urbanisation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Inputs and outputs in the hydrological cycle

Back

evaporation, precipitation, runoff and water percolation.

Card 3

Front

Movement within a drainage basin

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Storage within a drainage basin

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The water balance

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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