Geography - Economic Change

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define primary sector
extraction of raw materials from ground or sea
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define secondary sector
raw materials are manufactured
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define tertiary sector
involves in the selling of services and skills
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define quaternary sector
provides research and innovation
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what do HICs focus on
mature economy which have tertiary occupations e.g.- USA
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what do MICs focus on
strong manufactured sector eg- Taiwan
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what do LICs focus on
most of population still work as farmers eg- Mali or Nepal
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Social factors for decline in UK primary sector
cheaper to import raw materials and different attitudes towards primary sector jobs
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Economic factors for decline in UK primary sector
mining industries declined as most materials used up and mechanisation has increased due to improvements in technology
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Social factors for decline in UK secondary sector
increased mechanisation, withdrawal of government help to industries as they are focusing on tertiary sector
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Economic factors for decline in UK secondary sector
globalisation= companies relocating manufacturing to other countries. And Manufacturing industries relocated to MICs and LICs as production costs less, cheap labour
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Disposable income effect for growth of the tertiary sector UK
rise in luxury services= health clubs+beauticians, In 2000 4m people joined fitness clubs and it increases every year by 12%
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New technology effect on growth of the tertiary sector UK
technology+telecommunications sector increased, most high streets sell phones, online shopping has increased and in 2000 350,000 people worked in call centres. it increased by 950,000 in 2008
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demographic changes effect on growth of tertiary sector UK
people marrying+having kids later so spend more time+money on services, 20year olds increase spend on entertainment, socialising+beautification, Saga= holiday firm for retirees to travel to places like Cuba, Nepal and SA
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what factors affect economic location
labour supply, accessibility, power supply, raw materials and distance to market
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explain the primary industry CHINA CLAY, CORNWALL
120m tonnes extracted, Kaolin (clay) used to make Porcelain, 1860 65,000tonnes mined every year, 1910 1m tonnes a year. Exported to Liverpool by trains+tramways
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explain the secondary industry TOYOTA
large areas of flat land for expansion, traditional car manufacturing area, in Greenfield on edge of city, excellent transport routes - motorway A50+A38
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explain tertiary industry DAVID LLOYD HEALTH CLUB
Hatfield business park (A1 motorway), next to Galleria mall, Uni, Tmobile. modern design, attractive landscape, Salisbury village= middle class+executive housing. Modern flats= housing young single people
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define deindustrialisation in rural areas
process of social+economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity in country or region
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benefits of deindustrialisation
less environmental pollution, old industrial buildings can be made as tourist attractions, can return land to farming
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costs of deindustrialisation
land is left scarred, loss of employment and declining income for local gov
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Card 2


define secondary sector


raw materials are manufactured

Card 3


define tertiary sector


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Card 4


define quaternary sector


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Card 5


what do HICs focus on


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