Geography definitions

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Context hazard
Widespread (global) threat due to environmental factors such as climate change
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Geophysical hazard
A hazard formed by tectonic/geological processes
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Hydro - meteorological hazards
A hazard formed by hydrological and atmospheric processes
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Hazard
A perceived natural event which has the potential to threaten both life and property
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Vulnerability
A high risk combined with an inability of individuals and communities to cope
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Disaster
A hazard becoming a reality in an eventt that causes death and destruction to property
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Risk
The probability of a hazard event occurring and created loss of life and livelihood
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Albedo
How much solar radiation a surface reflects
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climate change
any long term trend or shift in climactic event a sustained shift in the average value for any climactic event
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enhanced greenhouse effect
This occurs when the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increase owing to human activity
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Fossil fuels
Energy sources that are rich in carbon and which release carbon dioxide when burnt
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Global warming
A recently measured rise in the average surface temperature of the planet
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Greenhouse effect
The warming of the Earth’s atmosphere due to the trapping of heat that would otherwise be radiated back into space – it enabled the survival of life on Earth.
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Tipping point
The point at which a system switches from one state to another
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Tipping point
Where the output of a system acts to amplify (positive) or reduce (negative) further output (e.g. the melting of Arctic permafrost leads to the release of trapped methane which leads to further global warming)
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Frequency
How often an event of a certain size (magnitude) occurs.
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Magnitude
The size of the event (e.g. size of an earthquake on the Richter scale)The size of the event (e.g. size of an earthquake on the Richter scale)
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Asthenosphere
A semi-molten zone of rock underlying the Earth’s crust
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Conservative boundary
A boundary between plates where the movement of the plates is parallel to the plate margin and the plates slide past each other.
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Constructive boundary
A boundary between plates where the plates are diverging or moving apart
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Destructive boundary
A boundary between plates where the plates are converging (moving together)
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Lithosphere
The crust of the Earth, around 80-90km thick
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Magma
: Molten material that rises towards the Earth’s surface when hotspots within the asthenosphere generate convection currents
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natural hazard
a natural event or process which affects people e.g. causing loss of life or injury, economic damage, disruption to people’s lives or environmental degradation
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Plates
Rigid, less dense ‘slabs’ of rock floating on the asthenosphere
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Hotspot (geological)
A localised area of the Earth’s crust with an unusually high temperature
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Hotspot
A place with a vulnerable population that suffers from two or more hazards
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Plume
An upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth’s mantle
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Inter - tropical convergence zone
A zone of low atmospheric pressure near the equator. This migrates seasonally
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hazard formed by tectonic/geological processes

Back

Geophysical hazard

Card 3

Front

A hazard formed by hydrological and atmospheric processes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A perceived natural event which has the potential to threaten both life and property

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A high risk combined with an inability of individuals and communities to cope

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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