Geography- costal zone

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why does urbanisation occur in LEDC?
shortage of services in rural area, better standard of living in city, more jobs.
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what is a city split into?
CBD(central buisness district), INNER CITY (poor quality/derelict housing) SUBURBS (land is cheaper, middle-class families, close to commute, less crime and pollution) RURAL-URBAN FRINGE(factories and farms land use mix)
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what are the problems of urbanisation in a MEDC?
shortage of housing, rundown CBD, traffic, ethnic segregation
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How do you deal with housing problems? (MEDC)
using city challange and building greefeild and brownfeild sites.
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How do you deal with traffic problems? (MEDC)
encouraging park and ride schemes, charging fines, public transport more attractive
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why do people stay in there ethnic groups?
support from others, familiar culture,specialist facilities,safety in numbers, employment factors
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How do you deal with ethnic segregation problems? (MEDC)
provide meeting for people to mix, education 2nd language, basic training provided
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How do you deal with inner city/CBD problems? (MEDC)
UDCs attract private investment and creating sustainable communities/ revitalising shopping centre, more pedestrianised, access, more attractive public areas
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what are the problems of squater settlements?
no running water, sewers, electricity, no policing, fire fighters, medical services, disease spread, densely populated
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what are the solutions for squater settlements?
SELF HELP (goverment provides buliding materials) SITE AND SERVICE( rent for materials and land to improcve area) gap year students often come along to help building of pipes and wells for water
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squatter settlement CASE STUDY
rubish exchange for bus tokens, provide transport to town to get jobs, medical treatments, infastructure built, widened roads (easier access for amblances)
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what are the environmental issues of urbanisation?
air pollution, water ppollution and lack of waste disposal ( no money, poor infastructure, scale too big)
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how is a city sustainable?
schemes to reduce waste and safley dispose, conserving natural and historic environments, building on brownfield site, efficent public transport system
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why is tourism increasing?
more disposable income, more holidays, travel is cheaper/efficent, improvemnet in transport, more tourist destination, facilities built
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why are tourist attracted to a place?
CULTURE; musems, art work, monuments SCENERY; weather, mountains, beaches ACTIVITIES;snorkel;ling, skiing, fishing
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Factors affecting tourism
weter, world economy, exchange rate, terrorism/conflict, major events.
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what are the stages of the butler cycle?
Exploraton, Involvement, Development, Consolidation, Stagnation, Rejuvenation/Decline
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butler cycle CASE STUDY
income increase try new things, package holidays created competition, weather unreliable, attracted private investment to upgrade facilities but now relies on day trippers, stag parties(bad image)
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benefits of tourism
people employed to serve the tourists, extra jobs created indirectly (farmers for foods) small buisness LEDC tourist spend in pounds, dollars, euro can bu used to buy goods, improvemnet of facilities
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Pros of mass tourism
more money, jobs for locals, young people stay withing area (large working force) income can be reinvested to in community project and environment (national parks), culture preserves, improved infastructure
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Cons of mass tourism
profit kept by larger companies, jobs are poorly paid, seasonal, traffic, clashes between locals and tourists, planes create CO2, increase litter, sewage, lead to destruction of natural habitats
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why are extreme environments more popular?
ideal for adventure holidays, something differnet exciting to do, wildlife, scenery, advertising, travel, one change( global warming ice caps)
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how is antartica being protected?
antartica treaty created; protected off limikts areas, wildlife should not be distrubed, no litter/smoking, supervision at all time, not trample plants, waste taken away n boats
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benefits of ecotourism (amazon rainforest)
readuces poaching/hunting, reduce use of fossil fuels, wasted disposed carefully, helps economy grow, all year round jobs (sell goods), sustainable income, funds community projects e.g. schools
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what is ecotourism
conserving the environment. small numbers of visitors at a time, activities such as walking, wildlife viewing,
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strategies needed to cope with impacts of tourism
TRAFFIC: dual carrige ways, speed limits, roads around not through, no lorries. EROSION:; gravelled routes, change the line, hard wearing material LITTER: signs, bins, WILDLIFE:closing gates, dogs on leads
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how to keep attracting tourists
build new facilities, reduce litter/traffic, advertise, improve transport, offer new activities, make it cheaper
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how does tourism in extreme environments damange?
deforestation- destryed habitats, more flooding, soil erosion(no roots), ffotpath erosion-landslides,toilets are poor, sewage pollution
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Card 2

Front

what is a city split into?

Back

CBD(central buisness district), INNER CITY (poor quality/derelict housing) SUBURBS (land is cheaper, middle-class families, close to commute, less crime and pollution) RURAL-URBAN FRINGE(factories and farms land use mix)

Card 3

Front

what are the problems of urbanisation in a MEDC?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you deal with housing problems? (MEDC)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you deal with traffic problems? (MEDC)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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