Geography- costal zone

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What is the term for ' the breakdown of rocks where they are'?
WEATHERING 1. CHEMICAL: carbonic acid reacts with rocks(carbonation) or rocks dissolve in the water (soloution) 2. MECHANICAL; water falls in cracks, freezes expands makes cracks depper. this repeateats until the rock breaks off (freeze-thaw)
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what are the two types of waves?
DESTRUCTIVE; weak swash but powerful backwash, large waves, high frequency, erodes beach away. CONSTRUCTIVE; powerful swash, weak backwash, low/long waves, low frequency, builds up beach (deposition)
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what are wave cut platforms or notches?
waves erode cliff until NOTCH is formed, erosion continues, unstable rocks collapse, material washed away, new notch forms, PLATFORM is cretated as cliff continues to retreat.
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How are headlands and bays formed?
alternating bands of hard and soft rock, soft rock eroded more- forms a BAY. Hard rock takes longerso it sticks out more.
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how are stacks are formed?
cracks grow on headlands, erosion enlarges crack to CAVES, cave deepens and breaks through into an ARCH, rock above arch collapses into STACK, stack is eroded into a STUMP, eventually submerged
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How are materials transported along coasts?
LONGSHORE DRIFT. swash pishes ediment in the direction of the prevailing, back wash transport it down under the influence of gravity, it repeates in a zig-zag motion
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What landforms does deposition create?
BEACHES (area of depositied sand and shingles) SPITS (longshore drift deposits sand into the sea - can become salt marsh/mud flat) BARS(when a spit rejoins the coasts- area behind is a lagoon)
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Why are sea levels increasing?
Global warming is melting the ice and global temperature increae results in thermal expansion of water.
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Give THREE hard costal managements.
SEA WALL(reflects wave back , no coast erode but strong backwash erodes beach)ROCK ARMOUR( piles of boulders, absorbs wave energy but strong waves move bolder -replace) GROYNES( stop longshore drift, wider beaches slow waves but starves beaches down)
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Give TWO soft coastal management(1)
BEACH NOURISHMENT(sand added to beaches,wider beaches slow waves but taking from seabeds kills organisims, expensive and needs replacement) DUNE REGENERATION (creating/restoring sand dunes- plants, wave energy absorbed but protection is limited
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Give TWO soft coastal management(2)
MARSH CREATION ( plants stabilises mudflats, reduces speed but can be eroded away) MANAGED RETREAT( allowing area to flood,marshlands make new habitats,no erosion but disagreement which land to flood)
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Card 2

Front

what are the two types of waves?

Back

DESTRUCTIVE; weak swash but powerful backwash, large waves, high frequency, erodes beach away. CONSTRUCTIVE; powerful swash, weak backwash, low/long waves, low frequency, builds up beach (deposition)

Card 3

Front

what are wave cut platforms or notches?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are headlands and bays formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how are stacks are formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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