Geography - Coasts

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Define destructive waves
backwash stronger than swash, occurs on steep beaches
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Define constructive waves
swash stronger than backwash, occurs on a gently sloping beach
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define hydraulic action
pressure of water being thrown against cliff face
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define corrasion
sand and pebbles carried by waves, thrown against cliff face
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define solution
chemical reaction between different rock eg-limestone
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define attrition
wearing of rocks in the sea, rocks and pebbles chip away at each other until they are smooth
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define physical weathering
freeze thaw, water gets into cracks and expands and freezes when temperatures drop. This then breaks of rock
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define chemical weathering
rainwater contains weak acids which react with rocks and disintegrates them
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define biological weathering
seeds fall into cracks and grow when moisture appears, roots put force into rocks and breaks them
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define slumping and soil creep
soil creep is the slowest downhill movement, slumping is large land moving down a slope leaving a curved surface. During rain rock weakens, slips down creating a slip plane.
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Describe headlands and bays
headlands form when sea attacks section of coast with alternation soft and hard rock. Section of land left jutting out to sea. The area where soft rocks eroded next to headlands called bays
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define cliffs and wave cut platforms
weather weakens top of cliff, sea attacks base forming wave cut notch, notch increase, cliff then collapses, back wash takes rubble out to sea creating wave cut platform and process repeats
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define caves, arches, stacks and stumps
caves caused by water getting into cracks in cliff through hydraulic action. Then breaking causing an arch which becomes bigger, until it loses support and collapses creating a stack which is attacked at the base, collapsing causing stump
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define beaches
formed by constructive waves, found in bays or long stretched beaches through LSD
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define process of a spit
created by LSD + deposition, stretched out to sea connected to mainland. Spit develops hook as wind direction changes.
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define process of a bar
spit develops in a bay, can be built across linking two headlands forming a bar
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define tombolos
a spit connecting to mainland and island
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define process of long shore drift
movement of sand + pebbles, direction of waves depends on prevailing wind, waves retreat to sea at 90 degrees. Found in spits and bars
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Social effect of coastal recession on Walton on the Naze
Name tower few metres from cliff edge, will be destroyed therefore town loses famous building
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Key facts of coastal recession in Walton on the Naze
In Essex, less resistant rock being eroded easily, coast eroding 1.5m a year, 520,000 pounds out of 1.2million pounds funded to protect landmark
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social and economic factors of coastal recession on Barton on sea
economic- Manor lodge 40,000pounds lost, owners lost savings + business. Social- houses will be destroyed by falling into the ocean
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What types of engineering techniques took place on walton on the naze
1977- groynes, seawall, breakwater 1998- granite placed round tower 1999- beach replenishment
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How to predict coastal flooding
records, environment agency uses mapping systems in NaFRA which calculates flood risk through defences
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How to prevent coastal flooding
retaining walls, vegetation+trees+grass protect land from erosion, Met Office and education
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Define rip rap (hard engineering)
large rocks placed in front of cliff, dissipates wave energy, cheap but unattractive + inaccessible for tourists
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define sea wall (hard)
made of concrete, absorbs wave energy, effective for years but ugly and expensive
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define groins (hard)
made of wood, prevents LSD, disrupts natural processes and ugly
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define gabions (hard)
wire cages filled with rocks, reduced erosion, cheap, absorb wave energy but can break easily and not very efficient
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define off shore reef (hard)
concrete blocks + boulders sunk offshore, dissipates wave energy but can be removed during storms
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define beach replenishment (soft)
put sand and pebbles on beach, natural looking, cheap + provides a beach but may affect habitats and disruption for home owners
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define constructive waves


swash stronger than backwash, occurs on a gently sloping beach

Card 3


define hydraulic action


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


define corrasion


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


define solution


Preview of the front of card 5
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