Geography Coastal Features

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  • Created by: Bumbulbee
  • Created on: 22-04-18 13:01
What is HYDRAULIC ACTION?
The sheer force of the waves especially eroding the rock, especially when they trap and compress air into cracks in the cliff.
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What is ABRAISON?
Abraison results from large waves hurling material against the rock.
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What is SWASH?
Waves, generally at the same angle as the prevailing winds, carry material up the beach at an angle.
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What is BACKWASH?
The water returns straight back down to the sea under the force of gravity.
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What is a BAR?
A bar is a barrier of sand that crosses over a bay which does not have a river flowing into it.
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What are the CONDITIONS NEEDED for a BAR?
1. Longshoredrift needs to be in operation, transporting material. 2. There needs to be a sudden change in the coastline direction. 3. The sea needs to be shallow.
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Describe the FORMATION of a BAR? (longshoredrift)
Longshoredrift operates as result of prevailing winds. At the start of the bay the coastline changes direction. Material is deposited here as it is sheltered - the waves have less energy. The sand continues to grow across the bay to form a lagoon.
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Describe the FORMATION of a BAR? (Deposites)
Sand that has been deposited off-shore migrates towards the land due to wave action. This material creates a barrier, as the water is shallow, across the bay to form a lagoon.
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Describe the FORMATION of a CLIFF?
Erosion happens at the foot of the rock by the marine processes.~ A wave cut notch is formed overtime.This becomes larger, undercutting the cliff, leaving it unsupported until it collapses.The cliff retreats and the wave-cut platform is left exposed.
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What is LONGSHORE DRIFFT?
Longshore drift is when material is transported and carried along a beach in a series of zig zags.
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Describe LONGSHORE DRIFT?
Waves, generally at the same angle as the prevailing winds, carry material up the beach at an angle (swash). It then returns straight back down under the force of gravity (backwash). The combination of these 2 result in longshore drift.
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How are WAVES FORMED?
By the wind blowing over the sea.
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What affect the SIZE of the WAVES?
1. The strength of the winds 2. How long the winds blow for 3. The distance of sea the wave has to cross (the fetch)
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What FEATURES do CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES have?
1. Low waves 2. swash > backwash 3. deposit > erode
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What type of BEACHES do CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES FORM?
Shallow and sandy
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What FEATURES do DESTRUCTIVE WAVES have?
1. High waves 2. erode > deposit 3. backwash > swash
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What type of BEACHES do DESTRUCTIVE WAVES FORM?
Deep and shingle
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Describe the FORMATION of a CAVE/ARCH?
The headland must contain weaknesses such as fault lines. The foot of the rock gets eroded by marine processes.~Overtime the cracks get larger to eventually form a sea cave. The erosion continues right through the headland to form an arch.
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Describe the FORMATION of a STACK/STUMP?
The roof of the arch collapses due to continued marine erosion and weathering. This part of the headland detached as a stack. Further, undercutting at the wave cut notch causes the stack to fall over after time and form a stump.
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Describe the FORMATION of a SPIT? (A)(B)
A. Longshore drift operates from west to east as a result of prevailing winds. B. At X, the coastline changes direct and material is deposited here as it is sheltered - the waves have less energy.
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Describe the FORMATION of a SPIT? (C)(D&E)
C. The spit has begun to form and grow eastward. It is hooked here as the wind has changed direction, pushing deposits back. D&E. The spit continues to grow and change overtime.
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Desribe the FORMATION of a SPIT? (F)(G)
F. Here the spit can no longer grow as the current from the river estuary is to fast and so the material is transported out to sea G. Behind the spit a salt marsh forms as it is sheltered and shallow there
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is ABRAISON?

Back

Abraison results from large waves hurling material against the rock.

Card 3

Front

What is SWASH?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is BACKWASH?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a BAR?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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