Geography - Challenges for the planet

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Define solar output (external)
energy which comes from the sun. In 1980s solar energy reaching earth had decreased 0.1%
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define orbital geometry (external)
responsible for past+future climate change. Earths axis tilts from 21.5 - 45.5. Variation over 41,000 years. Greater tilt=hotter summers+colder winters
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define volcanic activity (internal)
releases large amounts of sulphur dioxide+ash, acts as cloaks reducing the amount of solar radiation
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define surface reflection (internal)
global temperature drops due to snow+ice reflecting sunlight back to space
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define change in atmospheric gas (internal)
CO2 most important gas for greenhouse affect, keeping heat within earths atmosphere
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define tectonic activity (internal)
movement of continents due to tectonic plates change oceans currents and winds
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how meat dependant diets cause current climate change
increased population eating meat, increased livestock (cows/sheep), increased methane from livestock digestive systems
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how rice dependant diets cause current climate change
increased population eating rice, increased rice paddy fields, increased methane from rotten harvested rice
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how increased waste cause current climate change
increased population who produce rubbish, increased landfills, increased methane from rotting rubbish
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list 3 negative factors of climate change
retreating glaciers, rising sea level and chasing patterns of crop yields
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explain retreating glaciers
glaciers melting, 90% Antartica's glaciers are melting, affects ocean movement leading to colder temperature in W Europe
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explain rising sea level
1993-2006 sea levels rising by 3.3mm a year, end of venture sea levels risen by 88cm. 2 Kiribati islands underwater, + danger to London, NYC and Tokyo
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explain changing patter of crop yields
countries close to equator suffer most, Tanzania+Mozambique experience larger periods of draught, shorter growing seasons.
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Response to climate change on global scale
Kyoto Protocol- 1997 enforced 2005 - aim to reduce GH emissions by 5.2% of its 1990 level by 2012. reduce 8% EU, 7% USA, 6% Japan, 0% Russia
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Issues of Kyoto Protocol Treaty
carbon trading and over 100 countries not involved including India and China
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Negative effects of climate change in the Alps
under threat from warmer temp = disrupting snowfall+ice melting
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negative effects of climate change in the UK
More storms+floods, if factories+homes carry on building on floodplains, flood damage will increase
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negative effects of climate change in the Great Barrier Reef
green piece reports in 30ears Barrier Reef will be dead due to rising sea temp.
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Describe local scale responses to climate changes
Schools-'live simply' campaign 2007- encourages students to think bout their impact on world+sustainability. Local councils- UK Target= cutting carbon emissions by 15% below 1990 levels by 2010
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How are UK being sustainable with natural resources and climate change and energy?
target for 10% of energy consumption being renewable energy. And reduce green house gas emissions
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What do Asda use to become a sustainable company
Mil-tek machines that bale plastic placed at Asda distribution centres. Asda get payed for the plastic and it gets collected once a week then gets recycled
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What do Nokia do to become a sustainable company
promoting recycling old phones therefore benches, trumpets and gold rings can be produced. If everyone recycled 1phone we would save 240,000 tonnes of raw materials
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What percentage change their phone a year and leave old ones in a drawer
50% of phone users change their phone every year and 44% leave the others in drawers to never be used again
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How are park and rides useful
allows shoppers to park their care in large designated parking areas on the edge of urban areas and catch a bus into town centre
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Key facts of Cambridge park and ride
5 p+r sites, eg: Trumpington 4500 parking space= 2.20 pounds a day, easy access as close to M11, dedicated bus lanes, double decker buses arrive every 10 minutes
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Sustainable transport schemes
cycling+walking paths within urban areas, road lanes give priority to buses
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Key facts of London Congestion Charge 2003
10 pounds a day, increased to 11.50 in 2015. became sustainable due to traffic levels reduced 21%, 65,000 fewer cars a day, 12% increase cycle journeys
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Effects of resource extraction in Ecuador
Oil extraction. Plants such as periwinkle near extinct being used to cure child leukaemia. Also freshwater+farmland polluted due to toxic waste+crude oil seeps out of 600unlined pits
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Effects of resource extraction in Indonesia
crocodiles+tortoises in Teluk Etna nearly extinct due to pollution. 285,000 tonnes of untreated mining waste dumped into rivers everyday. Furthermore locals exploited by being given lowest paid jobs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

responsible for past+future climate change. Earths axis tilts from 21.5 - 45.5. Variation over 41,000 years. Greater tilt=hotter summers+colder winters

Back

define orbital geometry (external)

Card 3

Front

releases large amounts of sulphur dioxide+ash, acts as cloaks reducing the amount of solar radiation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

global temperature drops due to snow+ice reflecting sunlight back to space

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

CO2 most important gas for greenhouse affect, keeping heat within earths atmosphere

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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