Define world city
large city that has outstripped its national urban network and become part of an international global system’, World cities are the key stone of global networks
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What are world cities centres of?
Typically, world cities are centres of world trade, communications, banking and finance industries as well as the headquarters of Non-Governmental Organisations
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What are the MWC and what do they specialise in?
The major world cities which include London, Paris, Tokyo and New York are all examples of centres of specialised higher business services such as finance, accounting and law.
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Global networks, go!
Global networks depend on the success of a world city, and when one falters, all are hit. The global financial Crisis, beginning in 2007 arose from a loss of confidence by US investors in the value of sub-prime mortgages, causing a liquidity crisis
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Effect of GFC on Australia stat
The most obvious impact of the financial crisis on most Australian households was the large decline in equity prices, which reduced the wealth of Australian households by nearly 10 percent by March 2009.
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Command and control centres, go
Major World cities have developed beyond their former role as centres of international trade and banking to become command and control centres for organising the global economy.
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Telecommunication and TNC go
With a focus for advanced telecommunications technologies as well as infrastructure development, they become the preferred location of not only finance and specialised service firms, but also Transnational Corporations.
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What have world cities focused on,
There has been a large focus on location of finance and specialised service firms (such as law, accounting, management consulting and advertising), which have replaced manufacturing as the dominant economic activity of such cities.
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Example of financial role of world cities
An example would be the TNC, HSBC Bank, with major holdings in all of the major world cities, as well as operations in 71 countries.
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Culture, go
World cities act as centres of cultural authority. This comes from their ability to generate and spread ideas and values, and influence specific cultural processes
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How globalisation plays in this
The link between the globalisation of culture and the global urban hierarchy is nowhere more apparent then with the international competitions: the great ‘global spectacles’. Coverage of major events and their host cities is seen around the world.
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Example of world wide coverage
An example, being the London 2012 Olympics. The London Olympics gave a distinct feeling of British, incorporating their culture into the international world. Typically, the host city tends to be a world city, a demonstration of the role of wc in gn
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Whats an indicator of relationship between large cities?
The flow of capital, information, goods and services, and people are among the more readily measured indicators of the relationship between large cities.
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Capital flow, go
In terms of capital flows, there has been a net transfer of funds from the world’s developed economies to countries in the developing world.
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Result of capital flow
This results in factory closures and high unemployment in the old manufacturing centres of the developed world and factory openings and job creation in the low-cost economies of the developing world
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How have geographers dealt with the flow
One way geographers have tried to quantify the flows within the network of global cities is by focusing of ‘connectivity’. A measure of the flows of information, knowledge and direction between the basic agents of the formation of the world city netw
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What can you do from identifying such flows?
it is possible to rank cities on the basis of connectivity and determine the strength of links between specific cities.
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Where is sydney
Sydney, as ranked 14th has its strongest links with major urban centres of North America and the financial centres of Asia: Hong Kong, Singapore and Tokyo.
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Why is the flow of people important
The flow of people is another important indicator of a city’s status within the global hierarchy. The connection between world cities and global operation is often indicated
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What is the growth of mega cities associated with?
a multitude of problems, more predominantly lack of adequate housing and shelter, inadequate sanitation and water supplies and poor access to employment.
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Why does the housing problem occur?
Stemming from a large population increase consisting of both natural increase and rural-urban migration, the population in many mega-cities outweighs the housing supply.
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What does the large number of unemployed cause?
Due to the large number of the unhoused low socio-economic group, they are forced into squalid slums and squatter settlements. 40% of Karachi, Pakistan, and in Mexico City, it is estimated to be over 50% of the population live in slums
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What are the responses
One of the more successful strategy has been sight and service
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How do sight and service projects help?
Whilst the projects do not entirely cover the issue, they are advantageous in the fact that they preserve existing economic systems and opportunities and use the community and family support structures often inherent to slums.
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What do s and s projects do?
essentially resell the land of the area as a plot to the people living on the sight, therefore creating capital to be recycled into the community for services such as water and electricity
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Where has there been success?
India, Brazil and Zambia,
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What was the article?
According to a report by the BBC, such a scheme has even been able to incorporate schools and has been largely effective.
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Provision of water and sanitation go
. Only 40% of Karachi’s population receives water, which itself is rationed. In dealing with sanitation, mega cities are equally as ineffective.
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Example of sewage system and countries?
the proportion of the metropolitan population connected to the sewage system in Manila is just 11%; 18% in Dhaka and 20% in Karachi
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Why have mega cities ben ineffective?
The high cost of providing infrastructure to, in most cases an untaxable population has often prompted authorities to scrap proposals to deal with this issue
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What are some alternative solutions?
Recently however, more cost efficient alternatives such as hand-pumps and pour-flush toilets have been included which, though still non-assessable in their effect, aim to improve access to water and sanitation.
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High levels of unemployment go!
Urban labour markets are incapable of absorbing the expanding number of job seekers. A report by the International Labour Organisation estimates that 20-25% of urban adults in developing world cities are without regular work.
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Response to unemployment
A response to the issue has been more community, rather than government led. In response to so few jobs in the informal economy, many people are forced to create their employment within the informal sector
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What does the informal sector do?
The informal economy plays an important role in the economy of the mega-cities as it provides cheap goods and services for the poor. However, consequent of the large potential working population, wages are low and conditions poor
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Talk about the informal economy
The nature of the informal economy means that it is outside any formal regulatory environment. As such, the informal sector is not included in official statistics on economy such as GDP and includes street vending, hawking and busking
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World bank statistcs
According to World Bank, about ¼ of the urban population in developing countries live in absolute poverty and therefore, due to the inaction of government led initiative, is poorly effective in resolving the issue.
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Suburbanisation info
results from high birth rates and immigration, expansion in home ownership, and rising home ownership. Has occurred of late in suburbs such as St Ives, and is the prices of moving resources away from the CBD. Can rest in mini cities
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Inequalities regards to education
Social and physical environment has influence on the school, increase of socioeconomic segregation (level of achievement is linked to socioeconomic environment) 3 high school retention rates change between areas
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Sydney's economic character
Sydney is increasingly important link in the system of world cities. Economic reconstructing has occured of late, with huge developments to the CBD and other areas. Such as Sydney's CBD
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Account for the global distribution of dairying
Found in temperate regions, between the tropic of Campricoen and tropic of cancer. In areas gf moderate to high rainfall, tends to be in western nations due to bulkiness and perishability.
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Mangrove ecosystem fact
• 75% of fish caught commercially spend some time in the mangroves or are dependent on food chains which can be traced back to these coastal forests
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Mangrove protection
• Mangroves protect the coast by absorbing the energy of storm driven waves and wind (only two yachts undamaged by Cyclone Tracey in 1974 were sheltered in a mangrove creek)
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Number of mangroves
• 80 recognised mangroves belonging to 20 families, in aus there are • 35 species of mangrove in QLD and 48 species in the NT occupying more than 11600km
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Biophysical characterisations
• They grow successfully on mud flats o A saline environment – difficult conditions o Low in Oxygen’s saturated (anoxic, anaerobic) • Sediment contains o Fine alluvial (river) silt
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20m inland at the confluence of rivers, altitude 0=10 m asl, soil 2-17 m deep, 0-15cm biotic, grows about 1m pa
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Human change to ecosystem
1930’s rivers were natural/meandering 1960’s Powell’s and Haslam’s Creek straightened into cement storm after canals (absorbing heat and increasing eutrophication –algae) 1999 Remediation work on Haslam’s Creek remaindered to natural shape
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Card 2


What are world cities centres of?


Typically, world cities are centres of world trade, communications, banking and finance industries as well as the headquarters of Non-Governmental Organisations

Card 3


What are the MWC and what do they specialise in?


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Card 4


Global networks, go!


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Card 5


Effect of GFC on Australia stat


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