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elements of a drainage basin
infiltration, stem flow, evaporation, precepitation, interception, through flow, perculation, ground water flow
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phsycial process by which liquid becomes a gas, function of wind temp and rock surface evapotranspiration= rate water transfers from earth to atmosphere
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water balance-global
amount of water stored in various locations
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water balance- drainage basin
relationship between evap and precip when evap is higher then soil moisture is utilized
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hydrological cycle
transfer of water between sea and land
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river regimes
season variation in volume, is the presence of snow fields or glaceiers, they depend on amount and nature of rain, vegeation and rock cover
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wetted permiter
surface of bed and bank which is in contact with the water in the channel
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hydralic radius
area divided by wetted permitter shows friction between the water and the channel
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volume of water passing a given point of a set period og time, measured in cumex metres per sec
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factors affecting discharfe
previous weather, relief, rock type, temperature, land use, amount and type of rain
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flood prediction
using past storm hydrographs or records, rainfall graphs, flood recurance intervals and periods
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hard engineering
man made structures which control flow of river e.g. dam
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soft engineering
schemes to reduce effecrs e.g. prep
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material moved along the river collides with others and breaks up
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fine material rub against the bank
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rocks disolve
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hydralic action
force of the water hitting the bed
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large boulders rolled along
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smaller stones bounced along
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fine materal carried along
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disolved materal transported
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factors effecting erosion
gradient, geology, ph, human activity, load and velocity
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features of erosion
oxbow lake= neck becomes closer then river breaks through, deposition cuts of meander
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features of deposition
levees and waterfalls
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rocks which contain water
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ricks which dont hold water or allow movement
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Artisian basin
confined aquifer which contains ground water under postive pressure
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if ground water is over used
rising water table, subsidence, well becomes not artisian
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artifical addition of water to soil
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as water passes over soil it dissolves material increasing salts which come to surface via capilarry action and dry on the surface
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increased amount of nitrogen carried into lakes causing nutrient enrichment, leads to agal blooms, oxygen starvation
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areas which are regually satuirated and water logged, transision zone between land and sea
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recharge, purification, tourism, transport route
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population, motor boats, waterpolluted by oil, increase in nitrates, and infrastructure
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Card 2




phsycial process by which liquid becomes a gas, function of wind temp and rock surface evapotranspiration= rate water transfers from earth to atmosphere

Card 3


water balance-global


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Card 4


water balance- drainage basin


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


hydrological cycle


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