Geography 1A- Weather Hazards

What are winds?
Large scale movements of air caused by difference in air pressure
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What are differences in air pressure caused by?
Differences in temperatures between the equator and the poles
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Which direction do winds moves from and to?
From high pressure to low pressure
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What happens to air at the equator?
It rises which leads to low pressure
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What happens when the risen air reaches the edge of the atmosphere?
It becomes cold and falls to create high pressure and dry conditions
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What latitude does that happen at?
30 degrees north and south
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What latitude does air rise up again at?
60 degrees north and south
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What latitude does air descend again at?
90 degrees north and south
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What conditions are needed for a tropical storm to form?
Sea temperature of 27 degrees or high and when the wind shear is low
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What is wind shear?
Difference in windspeed
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What makes a tropical storm powerful?
The warm air rises and condenses which releases energy
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What does the rising air create?
An area of low pressure which increases surface winds
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Which direction do tropical storms move in and why?
Towards the west because of the easterly winds
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What causes the storm to spin?
The earth's rotation deflects the path of winds
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Where does wind speeds lose strength?
When they move over land or cooler water because energy supply is cut off
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Where do most tropical storms occur between?
5 to 30 degrees north and south
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What direction do tropical storms spin?
Anticlockwise in northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere
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What is the centre of the storm called?
The eye
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What is the climate like in the eye?
Low pressure, light winds, no clouds, no rain and a high temp
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What is the eye surrounded by?
Eyewall
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What is the climate like in the eyewall?
Strong winds, storm clouds, torrential rain and low temp
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What is the climate like towards the edges of the storm?
Wind speed falls, clouds become smaller and more scattered and the rain becomes less intense and temp increases
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How will temperature affect tropical storms?
More tropical storms and stronger storms
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What is the first primary effect of a tropical storm?
Roads, railways and bridges are destroyed
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What is the second primary effect of a tropical storm?
Sewage overflows and contaminates water supplies
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What is the third primary effect of a tropical storm?
People drown or injured by debris
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What is the first secondary effect of a tropical storm?
Shortage of food if crops are damaged, livestock are killed
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What is the second secondary effect of a tropical storm?
Roads are blocked or destroyed so aid can't get through
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What is the third secondary effect of a tropical storm?
Business are damaged or destroyed causing unemployment
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What is the first immediate response to a tropical storm?
Set up temporary shelters who's people have been damaged
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What is the second immediate response to a tropical storm?
Provide temporary supplies of water, food, electricity, gas and communication systems
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What is the third immediate response to a tropical storm?
Recover any dead bodies to prevent the spread of disease
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What is the first long term response to a tropical storm?
Improve forecasting techniques to give people more warning
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What is the second long term response to a tropical storm?
Provide aid, grants or subsidies to residents to repair and strengthen homes
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What is the third long term response to a tropical storm?
Promote economic recovery to encourage people to return to the area
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When and where did Hurricane Katrina strike?
Mississippi and Louisiana in August 2006
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What is the first primary effect of Hurricane Katrina?
More than 1800 people were killed
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What is the second primary effect of Hurricane Katrina?
300,000 houses were destroyed
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What is the third primary effect of Hurrican Katrina?
80% of New Orleans was flooded
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What is the first secondary effect of Hurricane Katrina?
Hundreds of thousands of people were made homeless
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What is the second secondary effect of Hurricane Katrina?
230,000 jobs were lost
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What is the third secondary effect of Hurricane Katrina?
The total cost of the damage was estimated at $150 billion
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What is the first immediate response to Hurricane Katrina?
70-80% of New Orleans residents were evacuated before it reached land
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What is the second immediate response to Hurricane Katrina?
The coastguard, police, fire service and army rescued over 50,000 people
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What is the third immediate response to Hurricane Katrina?
Charities collected donations and provided aid, including millions of hot meals
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What is the first long term response to Hurricane Katrina?
Us gov provided 16billion dollars for rebuilding
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What is the second long term response to Hurricane Katrina?
The US army recommended that buidings are rebuilt on stilts
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What is the third long term response to Hurricane Katrina?
Repairs and improved flood defences costing 14.5billion were completed in 2013
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How does prediction reduce the effect of tropical storms?
Data from things like radar, satellite and aircraft to monitor storms
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How does planning reduce the effect of tropical storms?
Future developments can be planned to avoid areas most at risk
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How does protection reduce the effect of tropical storms?
Flood defences built along rivers and coasts, leeves and sea walls
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What can too much rain cause?
Flooding
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What can strong winds cause?
Damage properties and cause disruption to traffic
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What can snow and ice cause?
Injuries and major disruption
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What can thunderstroms cause?
Lightning can cause fires with heavy rain and winds
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What can hailstorms cause?
Driving dangerous and crops/property
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What can heatwaves cause?
Death or breathing difficulties and roads melting
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What can drought cause?
Water supplies run low causing crops to fail and conserving water
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What months in the Uk were really cold?
November and December 2010
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Why was it so cold?
Cold air from northern Europe and Siberia
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What was the first social impact of the cold?
Several people died from hypothermia
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What was the second social impact from the cold?
40,000 homes left without water
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What was the first economic impact?
Transport disrupted, GDP decreased by 0.5%
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What was the second economic impact?
GDP decreased by 0.5%
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What was the first environmental impact?
Snow covered almost all of UK
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What was the seconf environemental impact?
Damaged crops especially sugar beet
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How can prediction reduce risk of cold weather?
Give people time to prepare
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How can protection reduce risk of cold weather?
Council stocked up on gritters and salt supplies
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How can planning reduce risk of cold weather?
Emergency services and councils planned how to deal. E.g. close schools
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are differences in air pressure caused by?

Back

Differences in temperatures between the equator and the poles

Card 3

Front

Which direction do winds moves from and to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to air at the equator?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens when the risen air reaches the edge of the atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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