Geography 1A- Tectonic Hazards

How is hazard risk increasing?
Population growth, urbanisation and pressure on land
1 of 88
What happens if more people are in an area exposed to natural hazards?
The greater the probability they will be affected
2 of 88
The better a population can cope with an extreme event, the lower the what?
Threat
3 of 88
What is labelled in the picture?
Inner core
4 of 88
What is the inner core made out of?
It is a solid and is made up of iron and nickel
5 of 88
What is labelled in the picture?
Outer Core
6 of 88
What is the outer core made out of?
It is a liquid made up of iron and liquid
7 of 88
What is labelled in the picture?
Mantle
8 of 88
What is the mantle made up of?
Semi-molten rock called magma
9 of 88
What is labelled in the picture?
Crust
10 of 88
What is the crust made up of?
Solid rock
11 of 88
Describe the main two characteristics of the continetal crust
Thicker and less dense
12 of 88
Describe the main two characteristics of the oceanic crust
Thinner and more dense
13 of 88
When the ocenaic plate goes under the continental plate what is this called?
Subduction zone
14 of 88
Why do the plates move?
Because of the convection currents in the mantle underneath the crust
15 of 88
What are destructive margins?
Where two plates are moving towards each other
16 of 88
Where are destructive margins found?
Along the west coast of South America
17 of 88
What are constructive margins?
Where two plates are moving away from each other
18 of 88
Where are constructive margins found?
At the mid-Atlantic ridge
19 of 88
What are conservative margins?
Where two plates are moving sideways past each other
20 of 88
Where are conservative margins found?
Along the west coast of the USA.
21 of 88
What are collision margins?
Where two continental crusts head towards each other and the crust gets folded upwards
22 of 88
Where are collision margins found?
Himalayas
23 of 88
Where is the ring of fire?
Along the margin of the Pacific plate
24 of 88
What do destructive plate margins form?
Composite cone volcanoes and earthquakes
25 of 88
What do constructive plate margins form?
Shield volcanoes and earthquakes
26 of 88
What do collision plate margins form?
Fold mountains and earthquakes
27 of 88
What do conservative plate margins form?
Earthquakes
28 of 88
What are shield volcanoes?
Runny lava that spreads out gently.
29 of 88
What are composite cone volcanoes?
Sticky lava that doesn't go far but causes layers of ash and lava. It is also very explosive and violent
30 of 88
Why is a composite cone volcano more explosive?
Because the lava is sticky so it blocks the volcano which has to errupt as the pressure has built up
31 of 88
What are fold moutains?
that form mainly by the effects of folding on layers within the upper part of the Earth's crust.
32 of 88
What are earthquakes caused by?
Tension that builds up at all plate boundaries
33 of 88
What do earthquakes send out?
Shock waves (Vibrations)
34 of 88
Where do the shockwaves spread out from?
Focus
35 of 88
What is the focus?
The point in the earth where the earthquake starts*
36 of 88
What is the epicentre?
Tghe point on the Earth's surface straight above focus
37 of 88
What are earthquakes measured with?
Moment magnitude scale
38 of 88
What is the first primary effect of a volcanic eruption?
Buildings and roads are destroyed by lava flows and pyroclastic flows, buildings collapse from ash
39 of 88
What is the second primary effect of a volcanic eruption?
People and animals are injured or killed by pyroclastic fflows, lava flows and falling rocks
40 of 88
What is the third primary effect of a volcanic eruption?
Crops damaged, water contaminated- people suffocate
41 of 88
What is the first secondary effect of a volcanic eruption?
Mud-flows and landslides cause more destruction, damage and death
42 of 88
What is the second secondary effect of a volcanic eruption?
Flooding- heat melts snow, rock clogs dams
43 of 88
What is the third secondary effect of a volcanic eruption?
People homeless, transport blocked, long time recovery
44 of 88
What is the first immediate response to a volcanic eruption?
Evacuate people, provide food drink shelter for them
45 of 88
What is the second immediate response to a volcanic eruption?
Tech comps set up disaster response tools
46 of 88
What is the third immediate response to a volcanic eruption?
Provide temporary supplies of electricity etc if damaged
47 of 88
What is the first long term response after a volcanic eruption?
Repair and rebuild houses and infrastructure
48 of 88
What is the second long term response after a volcanic eruption?
Improve monitoring and evacuation plans
49 of 88
What is the third long term response after a volcanic eruption?
Boost economy -tourists
50 of 88
What happened to L'Aquila Italy in 2009?
Earthquake- 6.3
51 of 88
How many deaths from collapsed buildings? (Primary)
300
52 of 88
How many people injured? (Primary)
1500
53 of 88
How many homeless people? (Primary)
60,000
54 of 88
How many buildings destroyed? (Primary)
Tens of thousands
55 of 88
What is the first secondary effect?
Aftershocks and fires caused more damage
56 of 88
What is the second secondary effect?
Broken water pipe caused landslide
57 of 88
What is the third secondary effect?
Electricity and phones interrupted fixed within a day
58 of 88
What is the first immediate response?
Camps set up with food and water
59 of 88
What is the second immediate response?
Rescue survivors and give free phones
60 of 88
What is the first immediate response?
Cranes used to remove rubble
61 of 88
What is the first long term response?
New settlements built to accommodate 20,000
62 of 88
What is the second long term response?
City rebuilt
63 of 88
What is the third long term response?
Investigation to see why buildings collapsed
64 of 88
What happened in Kashmir Pakistan in 2005?
An earthquake- 7.6
65 of 88
How many deaths? (Primary)
80,000
66 of 88
How many injured? (Primary)
Tens of thousands
67 of 88
How many homeless people? (Primary?
3 million
68 of 88
What is the first secondary effect?
Landslides buried people and blocked off supplies
69 of 88
What is the second secondary effect?
Diarrhoea spread due to unclean water
70 of 88
What is the third secondary effect?
Freezing conditions after caused more casulaties
71 of 88
What is the first immediate response?
International aid and equipment sent in
72 of 88
What is the second immediate response?
Help didn't reach areas for weeks- many rescued by hand
73 of 88
What is the third immediate response?
Tents, blankets were distributed - took a month in some areas
74 of 88
What is the first long term response?
40,000 people relocated
75 of 88
What is the second long term response?
Aid given to rebuild schools
76 of 88
What is the third long term response?
People used gov money for food- 3 years later = tents, 10years = students taught outside
77 of 88
What is the first reason to why someone might live somewhere at risk?
Always lived there and employed there
78 of 88
What is the second reason to why someone might live somewhere at risk?
Won't think it will happen to them and gov will support if it happens
79 of 88
What is the third reason to why someone might live somewhere at risk?
Soil is fertile and is good for farmers
80 of 88
How can monitoring reduce effects of earthquake?
Networks can monitor earth movements and be used in early warning systems
81 of 88
How can monitoring reduce effects of an eruption?
Monitor tell-tale signs that come- to tell people to evacuate
82 of 88
How can prediction reduce effects of earthquake?
Monitor movement of plates forecast areas that should prepare
83 of 88
How can prediction reduce effects of an eruption?
Can be predicted if well monitored- gives people time to evacuate
84 of 88
How can protection reduce effects of earthquake?
Built to withstand- buildings and bridges strengthened
85 of 88
How can protection reduce effects of an eruption?
Bridges and buildings strengthened, automatic shut off for gas and electricity to prevent fires
86 of 88
How can planning reduce effects of earthquake?
Emergency people train, educated, evacuation routes, emergency supplies stockpiled
87 of 88
How can planning reduce effects of an eruption?
Emergency people train, educated, evacuation routes, emergency supplies stockpiled
88 of 88

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens if more people are in an area exposed to natural hazards?

Back

The greater the probability they will be affected

Card 3

Front

The better a population can cope with an extreme event, the lower the what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is labelled in the picture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the inner core made out of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Natural hazards resources »