geograpghy

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how are waves formed
waves form due to a transfer of energy and action of wind
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destructive wave features
stormy conditions, high energy, large fetch, erosion, greater backwash
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constructive wave features
calm conditions, lower energy, help transport material by longshore drift, deposition, greater swash
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what are the erosional coastal landforms
cave, stack, stump, arch
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how are headlands and bays formed
these landforms develop on coastlines where there are mixture of hard and soft rock
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what are headlands
hard or resistant rocks eg. limestone and chalk takes a longer time to erode
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what are bays
soft or less resistant rock eg. sand and clay wears away quicker
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what is longshore drift
process by which beach sediment can be transported along the coast by waves. swash forces up sediment at 45 degrees and backwash brings sediment down the beach at 90 degrees
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how is a spit formed
extended stretch of beach material, joined to the mainland, that projects out to sea
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how is a bar formed
extended stretch of beach material that grows across a bay joining two headlands
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what are the factors influencing cliff recession
fetch, geology, coastal management
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what are the impacts of cliff recession
loss of property, destruction of habitats
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what are the causes of coastal flooding
high tide, storms, action of waves, sea level rise
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how to reduce the impact of coastal flooding
barriers, areas of open space on flood plains, flood walls and planning
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hard engineering of coastal protection
sea wall, groynes, rip rap, offshore reef
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soft engineering of coastal protection
beach replenishment, managed retreat, cliff regrading
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what is a tectonic plate
the earths crust divided into giant sections
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why do tectonic plates move
convection currents in the mantle
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what are the three types of plate boundaries
convergent, divergent and constructive
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characteristics of convergent (destructive) plate boundaries
plates move together and collide, very violent volcano and earthquakes occur, subduction occurs dense oceanic plate subducts into the less dense continetal crust, fold mountains can form when both plates are pushed upwards by the force of collison
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characteristics of divergent plate boundaries
plates move apart, less violent volcanoes and earthquakes occur, new sea floor is created by solidified magma
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characteristics of conservative
plates slide past eachother, no crust is destroyed (no volcanoes), plates can stick which increases pressure which can release violent earthquakes
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what is a epicentre
the point of the surface directly above the focus
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what is the focus
the central point of the earthquake deep under the surface, the greatest release of energy
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what is the richter scale
measures the magnitude and energy released during the earthquake
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what is the mercalli scale
measures the damage caused by the earthquake
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preventing volcanic eruptions
barriers and ditches divert lava flow, water spraying to cool down solid lava
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preventing earthquakes
earthquake proof buildings
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how to plan for tectonic hazards
land use planning, emergency services equipped and trained, pubic education
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how to predict tectonic hazard
tiltmeters and lasers, seismometers, GPS ans satellite images, chemical sensors
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what is the primary sector
working with natural resources eg. fishing, farming, mining
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what is the secondary sector
manufacturing products eg. tv, car, construction
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what is the tertiary sector
providing services eg. shops, offices, banks, schools
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what is the quaternary sector
it and research
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why is there a decline in the primary sector (farming)
cheaper to import food, eu legislation, pesticides and herbicides, increased mechanisation, agribusiness
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why is there a decline in the primary sector (fishing)
mechanisation
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why is there a decline in the primary sector (forestry)
very little change, lowest % of workforce
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why is there a decline in the primary sector (mining)
cheaper to improt, modern power stations run on gas, coal was realised to be bad for the environment, decline of heavy industries
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why is there a decline in the secondary sector
cheaper to make products abroad, de-industrialisation, transport, modern communication networks, growth of worldwide companies, globalisation
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why has the tertiary sector grown in developed countries
people have more disposable income to spend of the services
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what are the benefits of rural de-industrialisation
less environmental pollution, old buildings and land can be made into tourist attraction, ugly building removed prevent visual pollution, brownfield sites can be used for housing or industrial growth
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what is a residential settlement
lots of housing but few seervices
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what is a market town settlement
centres for trading goods, at crossroads, near rivers
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what is a administrative settlement
focus on the governance of a country or area, often capital city
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what is a strategic settlement
historically providing protection from attack, often hill tops or meanders of a river
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what is a industrial settlement
large proportion of the population working within a certain industry
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what is a tourism settlement
rely heavily on the tourists who are attracted
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what are the advantages of eco-towns
provide upto 20000 new homes, largely car free, can be made more sustainable, people with lower incomes
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what are the disadvantages of eco-towns
increases urban sprawl, built on green field land, very little employment
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what is a brown field site
a piece of land that has been previously developed waiting to be re-developed
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what does renewal mean
to provide economic activities and employment after de-industrialisation
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what does de-industrialisation mean
to create new uses for old buildings or to clear them away and rebuild
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what are the advantages of brownfield sites
helps rejuvenate areas, reduces loss of countryside, services eg. water, gas etc, often near employment
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what are the disadvantages of brownfield sites
some sites polluted, old buildings may need to be taken down, may lack modern transport
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what are he advantages of green field sites
relativley cheap to develop, new houses quicker to build, often located in 'healthier' areas
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what are the disadvantages of green field sites
valuable farmland lost, wildlife disturbed, increased noise and light pollution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

destructive wave features

Back

stormy conditions, high energy, large fetch, erosion, greater backwash

Card 3

Front

constructive wave features

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the erosional coastal landforms

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how are headlands and bays formed

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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