GEOG4B - Kenyan Healthcare System/Riders for Health

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Give three links between Figure P4 (relief map) and other maps in Item 2.
Population density is highest in areas of high relief (excluding Mombasa). Precipitation is highest in areas of high relief (excluding Mombasa). High relief areas tend to be used for cropland.
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Give three links between Figure P5 (precipitation map) and other maps in Item 2.
Areas of high precipitation match areas of high relief, high population density and cropland.
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What did the CIA World Factbook say about Kenya's highlands?
One of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa.
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What is the problem with many Kenyans living in areas of moderate/high precipitation?
Kenya experiences an annual rainy season which can result in flooding and make road conditions more difficult.
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When is Kenya's rainy season?
March to May.
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Give three examples of crops grown in different areas of Kenya.
Coconuts/fruit grown in Mombasa, coffee grown around Nairobi and sugar grown around Kisumu.
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Give a reason for the information shown on Figure P8 (density of poverty map) not being completely reliable?
Rural settlements so tiny that they lack numbers to be included on chloropleth map; may have a higher proportion of poverty but cannot be identified.
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Give an example of a notorious slum in Kenya.
Kibera in Nairobi.
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What is an NGO?
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level.
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Give four roles of the World Health Organisation.
Shapes the research agenda. Sets standards and monitors implementation. Promotes ethical and evidence-based policies. Monitors health situation globally.
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Define 'infrastructure'.
The fundamental facilities and systems serving an area, needed for the operation of a society and economy.
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By how much do anti-malarial drugs reduce the risk of contracting malaria? What can prompt treatment of the disease result in?
Risk reduced by 90% when anti-malarials taken. Prompt treatment can result in a full recovery.
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How can diarrhoea-causing infections (such as Rotavirus) be contained? How are they treated, and is treatment expensive?
Infections contained through good hygiene standards. Treated using oral rehydration solution which is inexpensive.
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How can Rotavirus be prevented?
Vaccination available.
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What is the health expenditure of Kenya and where does it rank globally?
4.7% of GDP. Ranks 148th globally.
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Which country has the highest health expenditure in terms of proportion of GDP, and what is the percentage?
The USA; 17.9%.
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Why is the Riders for Health project potentially unsustainable?
Creates dependency upon a foreign charitable organisation.
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What is a 'grassroots initiative'?
A movement driven by a local community as opposed to being formed through traditional power structures; 'bottom up' development.
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What is the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya? (2013 figure)
6.04%
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Give four groups of people at highest risk of HIV/AIDS.
People who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, sex workers and women often subject to domination and abuse.
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What are the social implications of the reduction of the stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS? Give two.
Sufferers are more likely to seek treatment instead of hiding illness for fear of what others will think. Communities are better informed on HIV/AIDS.
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What are 'opportunistic infections'?
Infections that take advantage of the weakened immune system attacked by HIV; e.g. blood poisoning.
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What is the annual mean temperature in Nairobi, Eldoret and Kimusu?
15.5 - 23 C
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What is the average annual temperature in the rural east?
29.5 C
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Suggest a reason for there being high density of poverty on the outskirts of major urban settlements.
Slum development as a result of rural-urban migration.
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Give a potential solution to healthcare staffing shortages in relation to training.
Offering paid leave for postgraduate training.
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Give a potential solution to healthcare staffing shortages in relation to staff retention.
Salary structures, professional job grading - opportunities for promotion.
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Give two potential solutions to healthcare staffing shortages in relation to working conditions?
Renovation of facilities to include better technology. Shorter working hours for staff.
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What are the advantages of the 'rotating expat' programme?
Would create a steady flow of highly skilled doctors and nurses. More opportunities for Kenyan people to train. Broader experience for workers from other countries.
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What are the disadvantages of the 'rotating expat' programme?
Requires support from health service in partner country. Placements temporary - unsustainable. Cost?
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How may the improvement of logistics in turn help the staffing shortage issue?
Improving access/communications to rural areas may improve working conditions and increase opportunities in rural areas, encouraging more professionals to work there.
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Why has deforestation occurred?
To feed growing population.
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How much of the Eastern Mau Forest has been lost since 1973?
50%
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What is an impact of inadequate waste management in growing Nairobi?
Pollution of the Nairobi River.
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How many people live in Nairobi?
3 million
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How many people live in Kibera?
700,000
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What further environmental problem does Nairobi suffer from due to high production?
Poor air quality
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How much waste does Nairobi produce each day?
1,500 tonnes solid waste
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What exists next to Nairobi and is threatened by its expansion?
Nairobi National Park
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What are the slopes of Mount Kenya important for? (4)
Timber, tourism, agriculture and water catchment.
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Give an example of how lack of access to clean water is a problem for women's health.
In the Samburu District, Central Kenya, women and girls walk 9km a day to collect water. They must carry heavy loads; 20l of water weighs around 20kg.
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Give two examples of energy harvesting techniques in Kibera.
Human waste is collected and energy is converted into electricity that can be used for lighting and heating. Kibera Youth Community Programme makes solar panels.
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What environmentally-degrading practices do the rural poor use for subsistence and survival?
Collecting water and fuelwood and grazing animals on common land.
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Where do 36% of Kenya's rural poor live?
Areas most vulnerable to environmental degradation, such as coastal areas, floodplains and degraded hillsides.
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What sort of environmental hazards exist in the above areas? (4)
Droughts, floods, forest fires and landslides.
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How much of an increase in mean annual temperature has Kenya experienced since 1960 due to climate change?
1 C
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How much of the Masaai tribe's cattle has ben lost in recent years due to more frequent drought?
90%
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give three links between Figure P5 (precipitation map) and other maps in Item 2.

Back

Areas of high precipitation match areas of high relief, high population density and cropland.

Card 3

Front

What did the CIA World Factbook say about Kenya's highlands?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the problem with many Kenyans living in areas of moderate/high precipitation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When is Kenya's rainy season?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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