Geog1220

Geography, Environment and Society

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Are resources that can be produced naturally but on time scales so long that effectively once a resource has been exploited and utilized it cannot be naturally reproduced...
Non-renewable resources
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Who, out of these two, uses the black box model?
Environmental economists
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Who first proposed the ecosystem model in the 1960s?
Stoddart
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What is the driving force in depletion (transformation)?
Human systems
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The National Land Use Transition (NLUT) shows...
Rate of forest cover change
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In the NLUT what is the turning point where the forest cover starts to rise again known as?
Forest transition
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What are goals?
Long term basic aims/ideals to aim at
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Laws allowing for discretion applies to...
Administrative discretion
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What are the two main types of environmental policy?
Regulatory policy and market based approaches
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What are the two sources of pressure?
From general public and policy makers themselves
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Pressures on the policy makers themselves include:
Both
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An awareness of a problem with recognition *********** throughout the public describes:
Political Conflict Model
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Stress olaced on human beings, stemming from specific env problems describes:
Environmental Stress Model
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Who formed the environmental stress model?
G.F.White
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Who created the Political Conflict Model in 1971?
O
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Can actual policies differ from stated policies?
Yes
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You can divide each country into the two main blocks of:
The state and civil society
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Business groups are interested in...
Economic development
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Social development takes an interest in...
Labour
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Environmentalists are always..
Outsiders
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Trade unions are interested in...
Labour
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The conservatives involve an overlap of state with..
Capital
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Taking an historical approach to categorizing environmental groups divides them by:
Non-political conservation groups and Environmentalist groups
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What are Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace?
Environmentalist Groups
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Who described environmentalism as "The ideologies and practices which inform and flow from a concern for the environment”?
Ron Johnston
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When did the environmental revolution begin?
60s
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Cornucopians (solutions can always be found- market place, technological development) and accomodators (some change is necessary for env sus. but societal structure can be adapted to accomodate changes) are both part of:
The Technocentric group
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Soft technologists (alternative techs- small scale) and deep environmentalists (idea of new types of society) are...
Ecocentric groups
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The two types of Technocentric group are:
Cornucopians and soft technologists
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Categorising environmental groups by discourses of humanity and the environment splits them by what...
The black box model and the ecosystem model
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The Utalitarian view of nature uses the..
Black Box Model
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The holistic model (biosphere with a little human box where human systems are part of env systems) is:
The Ecosystem Model
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Socities where civil society does what state tells it to do with all citizens obeying rules in leglislation and policy formulation behind closed doors reflecting values of elites ruling are what societies?
Elitist societies
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Societies where what happens in civil society impacts on rule formulation, involvement a large number of interest groups, lots of public discussion, inputs from civil society in policy formulation and lots of transparency (a more chaotic policy formulatio
Pluralist societies
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What are most developing countries?
Elitist societies
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What is the USA?
A pluralist society
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What are the three policy making models for Elitist societies?
Procedural Rationality model, Incremental models, Bureaucratic decision making model
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When was the Control of Pollution act set-up in the UK?
1974
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Aswell as the Control of Pollution Act, what else was established in the UK to control pollution?
The Royal Commision on Environmental Pollution
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The choice of goals in public policy is influenced by the relative power of groups in which model?
Political Bargaining model
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"The balance of group pressures is the exisiting state of society" said by who? (Political Bargaining Model)
Bentley (1908)
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How does pluralism relate to democracy?
Both- two different views on this issue
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What are the two models for mixed societies?
Policy Networks Model and Advocacy Coalitions Model
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Who came up with the Policy Networks Model?
Harriot, 1997
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Policy Networks Model involves:
Both
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Who devised the Advocacy Coalitions Model (mixed society approach)?
Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1993)
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How did O'Riordan (1971) describe management?
A, C and D are all correct definitions but C is the one by O
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Forests used solely for timber production is an example of:
Single objective of management
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The annual harvest from a renewable resource must equal this for management to be sustainable...
The optimal yield
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In Indonesia, what diameter (and greater) does a tree have to be before it can be logged?
50cm
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In Indonesia, for every hectare of forest at least how many trees 35cm+ in diameter have to be left behind?
25
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Blondel (1995): “a group and the set of relationships within that group
Institution
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A type of group or special institution within state organisations is known as..
Organisation
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State Organisations can...
A and B
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The UK Forestry Commission
undertakes management itself
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State organisations use..
Top-down hierarchical management structures
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For the Forestry Commission, who is at the top of the chain of command in forest enterprise?
Parliament
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The new sustainability paradigm for forest management includes:
A and B
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In the 17th century, what percentage of the US was forested?
45%
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In which century did logging and deforestation start to accelerate in the US?
19th C
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In which century did pressures from foresters and conservationists begin in the US?
19th C
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In what year did First state park preserve redwood forests in California - Mariposa Grove?
1864
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What was the name of the first national park in the US?
Yellowstone
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What year was the first national park (Yellowstone) formed in the US?
1872
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What was the first state park in the US?
Mariposa Grove
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In what year did the US Congress pass a bill to establish Forestry Division in the US?
1880
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In what year did the Forest Reserves Act establish National Forests in the US (Land Reform Bill)
1890
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In what year were the first hectares of reserves designated (called National Forests in 1907) in the US?
1891
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How many hectares were first designated as reserves in the US?
5
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What didn't the Forest Reserves Act have?
A and B
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In what year did the Forest Management Act define goals of management?
1897
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In what year was the Stronger Forestry Bureau established (later the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service)?
1905
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Deforestation in the US stopped at what percentage of forest cover?
25%
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When did deforestation in the US stop?
1920
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In what decade was forest cover up to 33%
70s
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How long did it take the US (a highly pluralist society) to change its policy towards sustainable management ?
30years
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After changing to sustainable management, how long did it take the US to get the right policies and institutions in place?
20years
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How long did it take the policies to have an impact on the trend in forest cover?
15years
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What group in UK history established the first forest reserves for hunting?
Saxons
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In what century did the saxons first establish forest reserves for hunting in the UK?
9th century
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In the Mid-16th C which monarch prohibited iron smelting to save oakwoods? (UK)
Queen Elizabeth I
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Why were oakwoods saved? (UK)
To build ships for the navy to conquer the world
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In which year did the Dutch sink English fleet?
1664
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In what centuries was Forest protection relaxed in era of empire, free trade in the UK?
18th and 19th
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At the start of WWI what was the % forest cover in the UK?
5%
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At the start of WWI what was the % self-sufficiency in wood in the UK?
7%
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In what year did the UK government accept the Acland Report?
1918
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In what year was the Forestry Bill passed and the Forestry Commission founded in the UK?
1919
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In the UK, what % forest cover was reached in the 1990s?
10
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In what society does the transition to sustainable management take longer?
Elitist
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Who were the pioneers of the new sustainability paradigm?
US
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When was the sustained yield act established in the US?
1960
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When was the Wilderness Act established in the US?
1964
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When was the National Environmental Protection Act established in the US?
1969
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When was the Forest and Rangeland Planning Act established in the US?
1974
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When was the National Forest Management Act established in the US?
1976
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One of the 4 UK Initiatives was the UK Forestry Accord. When was this formulated?
1996
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What UK Initiative was formulated in 1998?
UK Forestry Standard
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When were the set of Indicators of Sustainable Forestry established in the UK?
2001
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When was the FSC launched in the UK?
1990
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Why was the FSC established?
NGOs dissatisfied with rate of sus management of forests
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"A body governing a state" (OED) defines:
Government
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"self-organising, inter-organisational networks characterised by interdependence, resource exchange , rules of the game and significant autonomy from the state " (Rhodes, 1996) defines:
Governance
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Under which is there an emphasis on power?
Governmentality
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"A coming together of networks of political actors (Flint, 2002) with an emphasis on process describes:
Governance
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Multi-level governance...
A, B and D
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Decentralisation is a feature of multi-level governance. It involves:
A and B
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When NGOs take actions/take on the role of the state (as another feature of multi-level governance), it is known as:
Boundary crossing
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who, out of these two, uses the black box model?

Back

Environmental economists

Card 3

Front

Who first proposed the ecosystem model in the 1960s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the driving force in depletion (transformation)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The National Land Use Transition (NLUT) shows...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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WOAH! Great quiz. Should take people a while to do.

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