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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 02-04-14 10:23
What do China's imports reflect?
Appetite for energy, industria raw materials and some reserves are running out
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What is the worry regarding the way in which China is ensuring that it has the vital supplies required?
Is extracting supplies from weak and much poorer countries, especially in Africa
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What does China give e.g. African countries in exchange for supplies?
'Aid' and military equipment
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Does China rival Japan in the way it exploits overseas raw material sources?
Yes
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At present, what percentage does the service sector represent for China's GDP?
40%
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Why is the relative contribution of the service sector to the economy likely to increase?
As economy prospers and consumer spending takse of
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What Chinese cities have gained the status of world cities?
Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai
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Since when has Shanghai made the greatest strides towards progress?
1992
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Why has Shanghai made such progress since 1992?
Government allowed it to introduce range of economic reforms
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What is the world's busiest port, one of major financial centres and a shopper's 'paradise'?
Shanghai
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What is a world city?
One of the world's leading cities, major node in the complex networks being produced by economic globalisation
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What is the influence of world cities primarily linked to?
Provision of high order financial and producer services
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What are producer services?
Services sold to a producer (e.g. advertising)
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What are the problems facing China?
Rapidly ageing population, increasing rural-urban income gap, gaining access to foreign sources of supply, keeping wages down, serious environmental pollution
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What has caused the ageing population of China?
One child policy
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Why do wages need to remain low?
So labour force remains cheap and competitive globally
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What international factors have influenced China's economic growth?
Ever-expanding global demand for manufactured goods
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What is the link between primary sector and secondary growth and consumer spending growth
Leads to consumer spending growth
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What does consumer spending growth lead to?
Tertiary sector (commercial services) and tertiary sector (social services) growth
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What does tertiary sector social services growth lead to?
Consumer spneding growth and tertiary sector commercial services growth
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What does tertiary sector commercial services growth lead to?
Consumer spending growth and tertiary sector social services growth
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What does primary sector growth lead to?
Tertiary sector commercial services growth + consumer spending growth
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What does secondary sector growth lead to?
Tertiary sector commercial services growth and consumer spending
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When did Bangladesh become an independent state?
1971
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What is the other mainly Muslim country on the Indian sub-continent than Bangladesh?
Pakistan
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What is the geography of Bangladesh?
Low-lying occupies the huge delta area formed by the confluence of three rivers before they enter the Bay of Bengal
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What are the three rivers that Bangladesh occupies the delta formed by the confluence of?
Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers
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Why is it possible to reap three harvests of rice in a year in Bangladesh?
Fertile soils and tropical monsoon climate
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Despite rapidly growing population what is Bangladesh now largely self-sufficient in?
Rice production
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Until recently what crop was major cash crop?
Jute
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Until recently, what percentage of world's production of jute was Bangladesh responsible for?
90%
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What is a long-established cash crop in Bangladesh?
Cotton
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In 1971 what was Bangladesh like?
One of world's poorest and most densely populated countries
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What has allowed Bangladesh to begin developing an industrial base and exploiting limited energy resources?
Help of foreign aid
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What has retarded economic development?
Frequent and devestating floods, very high rate pop. growth, too much inefficient state ownership, corruption and limited capital
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What was Bangladesh initially heavily reliant on?
Jute producing industry
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What kind of things were made out of jute in Bangladesh?
Canvas, hessian, sacking, laminated cloth and carpets
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Why has the jute industry declined in Bangladesh?
e.g. Competition from cheaper synthetic substitutes
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What is a synthetic substitute for jute?
Polypropylene
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What is Bangladesh's number one resource?
Abundant supply of very cheap labour
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What is an industry that has benefited from cheap labour in Bangladesh?
Making of RMGs - ready made garmenst
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Where does the ready made garment industry in Bangladesh originate?
Outgrowth from older cotton industry which produces yarn and cloth
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When did the RMG industry take off in Bangladesh?
1970s
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How many people are employed in the RMG industry in Bangladesh?
Around 1.5mn
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What percentage of RMG workers in Bangladesh are women?
Around 80%
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What has been the multiplier effect of the RMG industry in Bangladesh?
Encouraged expansion of linked activities supplying e.g. zips, fabrics and packing materials, also created large demand for services like transportation, banking, shipping, insurance. Jobs created!
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Where does Bangladesh sell most of its clothes to?
USA and European Union
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What are the majority of Bangladesh's RMG products?
Shirts, jackets and trousers
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What percentage of Bangladesh's exports are in RMG products?
Nearly 25%!
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What are ready-made garments?
Clothing that is ready to sell to consumer
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Despite using local raw materials, what is RMG highly dependent on?
Imported supplioes
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What percentage of woven fabrics made to use garments for export are imported?
About 90%
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What percentage of knitted fabrics used to make garments for export are imported?
60%
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Why is it not possibel for Bangladesh to produce more of the raw materials i needds?
Problems of power supply, transport and communication. Efficiency of Bangladeshi labour less than in competitor producers
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What are competitior producers to Bangladesh where labour is more efficient?
China and Thailand
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What is the economy of Bangladesh like?
Predominantly agricultural
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What is Bangladesh's agriculture dependent on?
Erratic monsoon cycle, with periodic flooding and drought
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Despite increased agricultural output in Bangladesh, what percentage of the population is estimated as at risk of malnutrition?
10-15%
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What is the result of unemployment in Bangladesh?
Importance of informal sector
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What would enable Bangladesh to become more integrated in global economy?
Raise skill levels of labour force and improve physical infrastructure, particularly energy supply
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What can be more important than the abundance of natural resources?
Quality of human resources that counts highly
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What is an issue in Bangladesh and China?
Too many people so have to devote lot of economic effort to feeding them
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What can excessively large populations do to economic progress?
Hamper it
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What should a priority be for the Bangladeshi government?
Advantage of stable government so should continue to look at ho country might become more actively involved globally
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Why might Japan refute the concept of initial advantage?
Industrialised later than no. of European countries and is higher up economic stairway than them
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What could be a reason for the late economic development of China and Bangladesh?
They have only recently become nation states
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What is the basic inequality between countries largely down to?
Where countries are located relative to each other on the economic development stairway
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What occurs as a result of any inequality in terms of economic development?
Disparities that are largely to do with quality of life
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What is a case study or illustrating inequalities within countries?
China - plenty of room for internal difference
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Why do internal spacial inequalities exist from the outset and are inclined to persist?
Economic development is ignited in certain favoured areas of country and gradually spraeds
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Where is there a major contrast between in China in terms of development?
Certain favoured coastal zones (five Special Economic Zones) and 17 open cities are more developed than interior provinces
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When were the 17 Open Cities set up and Special Economic Zones?
During the 1980s
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What is another aspect of inequality within China?
Inequality between urban and rural areas as cities are experiencing development
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What is the role of rural areas in China?
Subordinate role as suppliers of food and labour
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What has the poverty of rural areas led to?
Massive rural-urban migration
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What is an example of an interior chinese province with low development below 0.73 ?
Sichuan
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What is an example of a chinese province with high development?
Coastal province of Jiangsu
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What is also leading to rural-urban migration in China?
Greater quality of life promised in ciities - higher wages, better social services and housing, modern lifestyles
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What is the stark contrast between rural and urban areas in China an example of?
Core-periphery situation and the so called backwash effect
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Is there a disparity between males and females in China?
Yes
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In which areas are Chinese women particularly seen as second class citizens?
Education, political life, health and promotion of life
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Why has there been sex-selective abortion in China?
As Chinese fathers wish to produce son and heir (one child policy)
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Why is the situation regarding equality beginning to change in China?
Some government reforms as a result of economic development
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When can it be estimated that there might be equal opportunities between the generations in China?
In a generation or two
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What are two types of inequality that exist as the by-products of economic development?
Spatial inequalities between countries and between regions and also inequalities between people
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Card 2

Front

What is the worry regarding the way in which China is ensuring that it has the vital supplies required?

Back

Is extracting supplies from weak and much poorer countries, especially in Africa

Card 3

Front

What does China give e.g. African countries in exchange for supplies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Does China rival Japan in the way it exploits overseas raw material sources?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

At present, what percentage does the service sector represent for China's GDP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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