Gentics

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Inheritance
the transmission of genetic information in the form of genes from one generation to the next
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Gene
a length of the genetic material DNA that codes for the manufacture of a particular protein. It can be copied and passed on to future generations e.g. amylase enzyme, collagen of skin.
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Chromosome
a molecule (strand) of DNA associated with proteins consisting of about 1000 genes inherited as a unit e.g. the X and Y chromosomes.
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Allele
one or more alternative forms of a gene occupying the same position on a chromosome e.g. IA, IB, i of human blood groups
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Genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism, the alleles for a particular gene that the organism has e.g. IAi.
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Phenotype
the characteristics (physical features or chemical makeup) of an organism e.g. A blood group, cat coat colour. The environment may affect the phenotype e.g. human skin colour, height
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Homozygous
having two identical alleles of a gene e.g. IBIB. The organism will be pure breeding as it can only pass on one form of an allele
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Heterozygous
having two different alleles of a gene e.g. IAi. The organism will be not be pure breeding as it can pass on one of two forms of an allele
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Dominant allele
the allele that is always expressed in the phenotype if it is present e.g. IAIO genotype gives a blood group phenotype of A group as IA>i
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Recessive allele
the allele that is only expressed in the phenotype in the absence of the dominant allele e.g. ii giving O blood group, O is recessive so IAi would be A blood group
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Diploid nucleus (2n)
a nucleus containing a pair of each chromosome. All human body cells are produced by mitosis and are diploid with 46 chromosomes (23 inherited from the father, 23 from the mother)
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Haploid nucleus (n)
a nucleus containing one of each pair of chromosomes. Each human gamete produced by meiosis contains 23 chromosomes to produce a zygote with 46 chromosomes at fertilisation.
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Mutation
a spontaneous change in a gene or a chromosome. It can be inherited by the offspring e.g. Haemophilia, colour blindness (gene) and Downs’s syndrome (extra chromosome). Mutation is a driving force of variation and evolution but mutations are usually d
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Card 2

Front

Gene

Back

a length of the genetic material DNA that codes for the manufacture of a particular protein. It can be copied and passed on to future generations e.g. amylase enzyme, collagen of skin.

Card 3

Front

Chromosome

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Allele

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Genotype

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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