Genetics and Evolution-Phylogeny and Systematics

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  • Created by: jessica
  • Created on: 19-03-13 15:55
What is phylogeny?
Branching diagram showing relationships between species based on their shared common ancestor.
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What is cladogenesis?
Splitting of evolutionary linkages to form clades e.g. Darwin's finches
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What is anagenesis?
Accumulation of phenotypic changes within a lineage e.g. **** erectus-**** sapiens
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What are synapomorphies?
traits mapped onto a phylogenetic map.
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What is the monophyletic group?
includes an ancestor and all of its descendants
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What is the paraphyletic group?
includes an ancestor and some but not all of its descendants
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What is convergence?
acquisition of the same biological trait in different lineages.
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What is an ancestral trait?
characteristic of ancestor
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What is a derived trait?
A modified form of an ancestral trait
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What is pleisomorphy?
Character state found in ancestor of group
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What is apomorphy?
Derived character state in descendants of group
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What is symplesiomorphy?
Shared, ancestral character state
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What is Synapomorphy?
Shared, derived character state (indicates homology)
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What is the equation for distinguishing ancestral from derived polarity?
Polarity Distinguishing ancestral (0) from derived (1) = assigning polarity
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What is homoplasy?
Taxa share a character, but not by descent from a common ancestor, homoplasy is a product of convergent evolution
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What does homoplasy give the impression of?
homology (synapomorphy)and therefore misleads phylogenetic analyses by supporting polyphyletic taxa
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is cladogenesis?

Back

Splitting of evolutionary linkages to form clades e.g. Darwin's finches

Card 3

Front

What is anagenesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are synapomorphies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the monophyletic group?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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