GENETICS

  • Created by: sara.5
  • Created on: 21-04-18 06:47
How many strand does the DNA molecule include?
2
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What shapes do the strands form?
Double Helix
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How are the two strands joined together?
by pairs of substance called bases
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How many bases are there?
4
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Name the bases and which one they pair with.
Adenine-Thymine Cytosine-Guamine
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What are the matching bases called?
Complementary bases
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What is each base attached to?
Sugar
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What is each sugar attached to ?
A phosphate group
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What sort of charge do DNA bases have?
A very slight electrical charge
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What does the negatively charge part of a base attract to?
A slightly positive charged part of another base
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What are these for of weak attraction called?
Hydrogen bonding
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How many Hydrogen does Cytosine and Guanine form?
3 hydrogen
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How many hydrogen bonds does Adenine and Thymine form?
2
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What does the hydrogen bonding explain?
Explains why C only pairs with G and A pairs with T
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What is an allele?
A different version of a version
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What is meant Hetrozygous?
The alleles for one gene are different
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What is meant by Homozygous?
The allele for one gene are the same
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What is meant by Genotype?
The alleles that an organism has
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What is meant by phenotype?
What the organism will look like
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What is the rule for a Dominant allele?
If the allele is present it will always be expresses in the phenotype
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What id the rule of the recessive allele?
Both allele are required to be expressed in the phenotype
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What two the chromosomes that determine our sex called?
Sex chromosomes
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What are the different sex chromosomes?
X, Y
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What does x code for?
Female
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What doe Y code for?
Male
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Which chromosome does a female have?
**
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Which chromosome does a male have?
xy
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What is mutation?
A change in a gene that creates a new allele
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When does mutation happen?
When there is a mistake in copying the DNA during cell division
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How can the damage happen?
Naturally, but is more likely to happen due to radiation or certain substance
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Do mutations make a big change in the protein that is produced?
Sometimes and it will affect how the body works
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Why does some mutation only have a small effect?
As, mutation could occur in different part of the Gene many mutation will not change the protein at all sot it will not have a an affect on the phenotype at all
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What happen in 2003?
The Human Genome project-The first human genome was decoded
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What are the advantage of this?
-Indicate their risk of developing a disease that are caused by different genes-Helps identify which medicine might be the best to treat the person illness as the alleles we have can affect how medicine work in the body
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What is Variation?
Difference in physical characteristic within a speciec
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What is genetic Variation?
Genetic Variation-Caused by the different allele inherited in Sexual reproduction Different alleles are produce by mutation and can cause change in phenotype
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What is environmental variation?
-Environmental Variation: Difference cause by environmental factors species could be affected by the surrounding
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What is meant by Acquired Characteristics?
Characteristic that are changed by the environment during the life of the individual
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How can Variation could be grouped?
Discontinuous-where the data could only take a limited value Continuous-Where the Data can be any value in range
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If the feature can be measures it varies....
Continuously
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What shapes do the strands form?

Back

Double Helix

Card 3

Front

How are the two strands joined together?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many bases are there?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the bases and which one they pair with.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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