Genetically engineering and bacteria

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 18-06-16 17:56
What are the 2 reasons for genetically engineering organisms?
To improve a feature of the recipient organism or to engineer organisms that can synthesise useful products.
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What are examples of improving a feature of the recipient organism?
Inserting a gene into crop plants for resistance to herbicides to increase yield. Inserting a growth-controlling gene into livestock to promote muscle growth.
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Explain engineering organisms that can synthesise useful products
Inserting gene for a human hormone e.g. insulin into bacteria to produce large quantities of the hormone for human use. Inserting gene for a pharmaceutical chemical into female sheep so chemical is produced in milk and easily collected. B-carotene
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What happens once a gene has been identified to be placed into another organism?
It can be cut from DNA using a restriction enzyme and then placed in a vector.
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What do most genetic engineering use as the vector?
Use bacterial plasmids as the vector.
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What are plasmids and where are they found?
Plasmids are a circular piece of DNA and are found in many types of bacteria.
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What do plasmids often carry?
Often carry genes that code for resistance to antibiotic chemicals.
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How are complementary sticky ends formed?
Formed if plasmids are cut with the same restriction enzyme as the one used to isolate the gene.
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How can a recombinant plasmid be formed?
Formed by mixing quantities of plasmid and gene in the presence of ligase enzyme so some plasmids combine with the gene which is sealed in the plasmid.
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What can increase the rate at which plasmids are taken up by bacterial cells?
The addition of calcium salts and heat shock (temp lowered then rapidly raised).
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What is a problem with the process?
It is very inefficient.
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What are bacterial cells that take up a plasmid known as?
Transformed bacteria
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What are these also known as and why?
Transgenic because the bacteria contain new DNA.
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What is bacterial conjugation?
Where genetic material may be exchanged. Copies of plasmid DNA are passed between bacteria.
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Why is this swapping of plasmids a concern?
It speeds the spread of antibiotic resistance between bacterial populations.
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What is the advantage to the bacteria of conjugation?
It may contribute to genetic variation and could allow survival in the case of antibiotic resistance genes.
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What is the 1st step of bacterial conjugation?
Conjugation tube forms between a donor and recipient. An enzyme makes a nick in the plasmid.
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What then starts?
Plasmid DNA replication starts and the free DNA strands starts moving through the tube.
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Where does replication start in the recipient cell?
In the recipient cell, replication starts on the transferred DNA.
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What do the cells do?
Cells move apart an the plasmid in each forms a circle.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are examples of improving a feature of the recipient organism?

Back

Inserting a gene into crop plants for resistance to herbicides to increase yield. Inserting a growth-controlling gene into livestock to promote muscle growth.

Card 3

Front

Explain engineering organisms that can synthesise useful products

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens once a gene has been identified to be placed into another organism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do most genetic engineering use as the vector?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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