Genetic, Environment, Behaviour

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  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 06-05-14 08:59
What is a genotype?
A specific genetic make-up, unique from others
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What is a phenotype?
observable unique characterisitc, determined by your genotypes interaction with the environment
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How do genotypes and phenotypes lead to characterisitcs?
Your genotype determines environments influence, phenotype determines how you interact witht the environments
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Tiny coils of DNA, each cell has 46 except the sex cell
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biological units of heredity, underlie every bodily structure and chemical process
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Different forms of a gene that produce different characteristics
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Dominant and recessive
Dominant win unless two recessive
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Polygenic transmission
a number of gene pairs that combine influences to create a phenotypic trait
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behavioural genetics
how behavioural and environments influence psychological characteristics
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whether or not people share a trait, 0 - 1, 1 = genetically identical
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Indentical Twins
(mz) - monozygotic same fertilized egg, 100% concordance
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Unidentical Twins
(dz) - dizygotic as different egg, 60% concordance
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Genes contribute to....but
intelligence, personality, psychological disorders but identical twins differ so environment has an influence
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Heritability coefficient
estimates extent to which differences in your genotype in a group is down to your genes, eg - divorce
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Heritability coefficient for height and weight
height - 0.8, weight - 0.6
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Genes and environments are...
not seperate determinants of behaviour, nature via nurture, integrated system
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Caspi (2002)
MAOA gene linking to depression but 4 x more likely in an abusive environment
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Laws of learning that apply, everyone is a blank slate waiting to be imprinted on by experiences
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focused on evolutionary differences between species
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Adaptive significance
how a behaviour influences an organisms chance of survival and reproduction in an environment
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Fixed action pattern
instinctive and unlearned responce that is triggered by a stimulus and inate to all species members
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Environments shape behaviour in two way
personal adaption - interactions with immediate and past events, not genetic, learn through consequences AND species adaptions - influence from environment through natural selection
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shared / unshared environments
food and equipment / relationships with people, own room
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3 impacts
genotype, shared environment, unshared environment
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Each organism must learn
which events are important to survival, whih stimuli signal that an important event is about to occur, whether its responces will produce positive or negative outcomes
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Why are twin studies useful?
Shared genes correlate with IQ but 25-33% still down to environment
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Environment and intelligence 3 factors
Shared family environment, environment enrichment, educational experiences
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Personality hereitability 5 Big Traits
Extraversion (0.54), Neutrocism (0.48), Conscientiousness (0.49), Agreeableness (0.42), Open to experiences (0.57)
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Personality and environment
Plomin and Caspi - those raised in same environment are as difference that those who are not
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Reaction range
genetically influenced trait is the upper and lower limit of possibilities that the genetic code allows, environment determines where you fall
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3 ways genotype influence environment
Parent-produced environment, influence responces provoked by others (evocation influence), influence self-selection of capatible environments
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evocation influence
a child's genetically influenced behaviours may evoke certain responces from others
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study of changes in gene expression due to environmental factors and independant of DNA, virus to your brain alters your genes
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Knock-out vs knock-in
eliminates a gene vs inserts new gene during embryonic stage to study impact of behaviour
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Biologically based mechanisms
enable and predispose us to perceive, behave, feel and think in certain way, evolutionary process
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change of frequency of genes in an terbreeding population
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random events and accidents in gene reproductive during division of cells, altered gene passed on causing variations
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Natural selection
a gene which is useful for survival is passed on
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Evolutionary noise
a gene which is useful for the future is passed on
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Evolutionary adaptations
physical/behavioural changes, allowing organisms to meet recurring envirionment challenges to survival, increasing repoductivity
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Brain evolution
how brain structure has change overtime
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Evoked culture
cultures may be product of biological mechanisms
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Evolutionary psychologists believe
human nature is expression of inborn biological tendancies through natural selection
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Sexual strategies theory
mating strategies reflect inherited tendancies, shaped in responce to adaptive problems (men - fertility, women - investment in children)
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Social structure theory
society guides men and women to have different mating preferences due to social roles, women have maternity leave
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Problems with this
attributing all characterisitcs to natural selection, survival of fittest
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Genetic determinisms
genes have invariant and unavoidable effects that cannot be altered
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Evolutionary personality
origins of presumably universal personality traits in the adaptive demands of our species history
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Strategic Pluralism
multiple and even contradictory behaviours may be adaptive in certain environments and therefore both survive natural selection
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Genetic manipulation
The process of transplanting genes from one species into another
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What is a phenotype?


observable unique characterisitc, determined by your genotypes interaction with the environment

Card 3


How do genotypes and phenotypes lead to characterisitcs?


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