Genetic and environmental factors (inc. culture) associated with intelligence test performance

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  • Created by: millie
  • Created on: 07-06-15 11:49
How are twin studies used to find out the degree of how much genetic factors are related to aggression?
If MZ twin pairs (who share 100% of genes) are more similar in intelligence scores than DZ twins (share 50% genes), this indicates that there are genetic factors associated with intelligence
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What is a better indication of how much genetic factors influence intelligence with twin studies?
As MZ twins share environment,real indication of how much genetic factors influence intelligence is in studies where MZ twins are reared separately in different environments
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What have studies with MZ twins who have been reared separately shown?
Still show more IQ test score similarities than DZ twins reared together. Estimated scores of average concordance rate of IQ for DZ's reared together was 0.6, MZ's reared apart was 0.72
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How are adoption studies used to find out how genes are associated with intelligence test performance?
If an adopted child has more similar IQ to their biological family than their adoptive family, indicates genetic involvement in IQ performance
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What did the Texas Adoption Project do in their study and what did they find?
Looked at 300 families where children had been adopted.1st time they assessed as infants,adopted children showed more similar IQs to adoptive families.2nd time they were assessed(10 years later)children showed similar IQ scores to biological families
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What did the findings of the Texas Adoption Project show us?
Suggests family environmental influences on intelligence test performance decrease with age whereas genetic influences increase with age
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What is one genetic factor associated with intelligence-test performance?
IGF2R gene
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How did Hill et al. (1999) find the relationship between IGF2R and intelligence-test performance?
Tested UK children between 6 & 15 years old.Split into 2 groups in terms of IQ scores. Super bright group,average IQ score of 136,had twice as much of specific variant of IGF2R gene in chromosome 6 than those in average IQ group (average IQ=103)
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What was Hill et al.'s conclusion?
That this form of the gene was a contributor for intelligence
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What did one study do when looking at the genetic markers for intelligence?
Took cheek swabs of over 7000 children,used microarray device to detect what genes had tiny effect on variation in IQ scores
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What did this study on genetic markers find?
Only 6 genetic markers were detected that displayed any single influence on IQ test scores.Stringent statistical tests were later run that found only 1 gene passed accounting for only 0.4% variation in IQ score
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What do the findings of the study on genetic markers find?
Even though the influence is small, genetics still have an influence on IQ test performance
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What is a debate of the genetic approach to intelligence test performance?
Reductionist-aims to narrow down complexities of intelligence to 1 measurable gene factor meaning ignoring other factors like socio-economic status(shown to have high influence on intelligence).Doesn't make it wrong explanation,just not complete expl
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What is the issue of looking at genetic factors associated with intelligence test performance?
Sub-cultural bias in reporting genetic factors in IQ such as same gene having different effects in different environments pointed out by Turkheimer et al.(2003)
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What did Turkheimer et al. do in their study?
Analysed IQ test scores of over 100 twins keeping in mind socio-economic status (inc. family income & educational level of parents)found degree of influence of genetic factors depended on twins SES.
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Continuation of findings from Turkheimer at al.'s study...
Those in wealthy families had 60% of variation in IQ scores accounted for by genes, children from impoverished families had almost none of IQ scores accounted for by genes
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What did Turkheimer suggest from their findings?
Poverty carries environmental forces that are strong & can shape intelligence from womb to adult & that children in home where wealthiness is relatively stable are more likely to have intelligence affected by genetic factors that are clearer
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What has been found as a factor instead of simply a genetic or environmental factor?
Gene-environment interaction
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What did Caspi et al. (2007) find gene-environment interaction as a factor of intelligence?
Children who had 1 variant of FADS2 gene scored 7 points higher in IQ scores if had been breastfed but children who had another variant of gene who were breastfed were not benefited in their intelligence from the breast-feeding
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Why are Caspi et al.'s findings significant?
Suggest that genes can change the effect an environmental factor has on intelligence, suggesting a gene-environment influence
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What is a weakness of the explanation that IGF2R is a factor associated with intelligence?
Findings suggest the gene is not sufficient on its own
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Whose findings suggest the IGF2R gene is not sufficient on its own and what did they find?
Plomin et al.-found that in high IQ group,high majority did not have IGF2R gene & that some of average IQ group did have it.Presumabley as individuals need right combination of genes to affect intelligence
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How does Plomin's study lack validity?
The studies findings have not been able to be replicated by other researchers, suggesting that their findings are scientific meaningless therefore lacking in validity
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What determines socio-economic status (SES) in the UK?
The parental occupation
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How is SES graded?
Class 1 being professional occupation, class V being unskilled occupation
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How has SES shown to be an environmental factor of intelligence test performance?
Makintosh found that children with fathers in Class 1 occupations scored 10 points higher in IQ than children with Class V fathers even when taking into account financial hardship and area of residence
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How has birth order and family size shown to be a family environment factor in intelligence?
Belmont & Marolla-studied over 300 Dutch 19-year-old men,looking at birth order,family size & IQ.Men from larger families had lower IQ than men from smaller families.Those who were first born had typically higher IQ than later born
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What did another study find in the relationship between birth order and intelligence?
Also found first born usually had higher IQ than later born, however if first born child died, second born's average IQ moved up closer to average IQ of first born
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What does Harris claim about outside-home experiences being a cultural factor of intelligence?
Experiences happening outside home more important to intelligence than experiences inside home & children age to be more influenced by outside experiences
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Continuation of Harris' claims...
Believes shared norms within peer groups control later development e.g how much they take part in intellectual activities such as reading
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What is one reason why there is a link between high SES and IQ scores?
Generally, high SES families more able to provide resources for children that will increase intellectual & cognitive ability, prepare them for school.Provides advantage over low SES families who may find more difficulty in providing such resources
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What evidence is there to suggest that high SES families are more able to provide resources that boost intellectual and cognitive ability?
National Statistics Omnibus Survey (2000) found in UK 71% of Class 1 households, but only 26% of Class V households had access to internet which is helpful resource for cognitive & intellectual development
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What is a weakness of Harris' theory that suggests intelligence is affected more by peer groups than family?
Some psychologists disagree- Pinker(2002) said he believes genes & peers do affect other behaviours like smoking but that intelligence is not affected by them
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What are the weaknesses in IQ tests?
Culturally biased-if a test for IQ has been developed in 1 culture,using it to assess another culture's IQ shows cultural bias that will affect results e.g.some societies have formal schooling more commonly than other ff
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Continuation of cultural bias in IQ tests...
e.g.some societies have formal schooling more commonly than others,means that societies receiving formal schooling will have earlier familiarity with organising rows & columns of items, placing them at advantage over those without formal schooling
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Continuation 2 of cultural bias in IQ tests...
Shows that being in different culture to culture that developed the IQ test can affect your IQ score, showing cultural bias
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What is a debate with the environmental factors explanations?
Reductionist-try to narrow down what is actually very complex mental ability into it being only a product of environment/culture.Ignores genetic role such as inheriting IGF2R gene
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Continuation of debate with the environmental factors explanations...
e.g.reason for high SES families having higher IQ could be that they inherit intelligence from parent and the high intelligence is how parent has Class 1 occupation.Does not make explanation wrong, just not complete explanation.
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What is a better indication of how much genetic factors influence intelligence with twin studies?

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As MZ twins share environment,real indication of how much genetic factors influence intelligence is in studies where MZ twins are reared separately in different environments

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What have studies with MZ twins who have been reared separately shown?

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How are adoption studies used to find out how genes are associated with intelligence test performance?

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What did the Texas Adoption Project do in their study and what did they find?

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