Genetic Engineering

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What is genetic engineering?
Technology involved in cloning + gene therapy/manipulation
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What is an embryo?
Developing bundle of cells in the womb up to eight weeks gestation.
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What is a stem cell?
A cell that can become any kind of material
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What is cloning?
Creation of plant/animal/human w/ same genetic identity as another
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What is therapeutic cloning?
Producing stem cells to treat diseases, e.g Alzheimers.
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What is germ line engineering?
Changing the parent's sperm/egg cells, aiming to pass them onto offspring
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What is a human genome?
An organism's complete set of DNA.
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What is somatic cell engineering?
Changing somatic (body) cells to cure fatal diseases w/o passing changes onto offspring.
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What is "pharming"?
Manufacturing pharmaceuticals in animals
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What is xenotransplantation?
Using animals to grow human organs
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What is transgenics?
Creating animals using genes from other animals
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What is a blastocyst?
Fertilised egg @ 4-5 days of development
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What is a zygote?
Small collection of identical cells.
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Give one advantage of genetically modified crops.
Greater resistance to pests; decreases world hunger through higher yields
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Give one disadvantage of GM crops.
Multinational companies (e.g Monsanto) demand farmers buy new seeds every year
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Explain the process of stem cell research.
Genetic material implanted into egg. Electricity -> egg dividing. Cells transplanted
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Define totipotent.
Able to become any type of body cells - embryonic stem cells are this
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Define pluripotent
Able to become a variety of body cells but not all - adult stem cells are this
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Give one criticism of using embryonic stem cells to cure diseases.
Adult stem cells have more proven benefits than embryonic ones
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How would a follower of religious ethics respond to genetic engineering?
Sanctity of life - embryo has intrinsic value, using for sake of another human = wrong.
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How would a follower of natural law respond to genetic engineering?
Primary precept "preservation of life"→ no embryo research. However, can be justified due to curing diseases.
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How would a Utilitarian respond to genetic engineering?
Can't predict outcome. Better to save future lives than keep embryos now. HC N/A - embryos can't suffer.
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How would a Kantian ethicist respond to genetic engineering?
Hard to universalise; embryo treated as means to end if it's a person.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is an embryo?


Developing bundle of cells in the womb up to eight weeks gestation.

Card 3


What is a stem cell?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is cloning?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is therapeutic cloning?


Preview of the front of card 5
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