genetic engineering

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germline
a) Altering the genetic makeup of human beings in a way that the mutation/change is heritable making the alteration passable to generations. b) Illegal under the Human Embryology and Fertilisation Act of 1990. c) Leads to genetic selecting
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somatic
a) Used to treat somatic cells that are damaged or unhealthy.c) Used in UK and is in trial to become more widespread. Stem cell treatment for example, by trying to battle leukaemia with adult stem cells.
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somatic example
d) Early 1990s. Designer babies and saviour siblings (Jodie Fletcher, first saviour baby in the UK July 2005, Wilkinson argues it is not a problem, only take blood from umbilical cord).
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gene therapy
a) Treat genetic abnormalities at the pre-embryo stage of development
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positive therapy
a) Improvement of an embryo’s genes according to gender, skin colour.
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IVF
a) allow doctors to screen embryos genetic disorders, replace faulty DNA.
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G.M crops
a) Modified to create a greater yield or to withhold harsh environments, do not know long term effects
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therapeutic cloning
changing nucleus', egg divides, parts taken, programmed to form any tissue, better from others' organs as DNA s same and less chance of organ rejection
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reproductive cloning
same as therapeutic, but embryo develops, cloned person provides, risk of mutation
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christians - no
sanctity of life, b) Imago die – “so god created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them”, Only God can change, Most Christian groups- teachings on sacred nature of all human life – conception etc
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christian = no
liberal - most loving thing, agape = pro-long life
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situation ethics
agape, teleological, relativist, diminishing marginal utility - offended by idea of engineering,
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embryo research - catholic
sanctity, ensoulment at conception, shouldn't play God, same as murder
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Natural moral law - no
a) Primary precept of preservation of life and self-preservation, God created the world, unnatural to play God,
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NML - yes
Jesus healed the sick, Christians are to follow him, Karl Rahner wrote that God has given humans reason and therefore it is not unnatural for them to use their intelligence
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utilitarianism - no
a) Bentham considers all sentient creatures, therefore using animals for pharmaceuticals or to grow human organs unacceptable
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utilitarianism - yes
b) Relativist c) Greatest good for greatest number d) Act- ok if it will result in more pleasure using hedonic calculas e) Rule – ok if more happiness
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embryonic research util - yes
a) Removing genetic defects causes great happiness and pleasure b) Bentham would say it is acceptable/preferable,
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embryonic research - util JSM quote
“All children and savages did not count; therefore one could assume that embryos don’t either” Hedonic calculus says that all count for one, all pleasures equal, does an embryo count for one?
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preference util- animals
a) Singer would consider the interests of animals alongside animals b) Pig for a human is acceptable c) However, technologies involve hurting a large number of animals so would be unacceptable
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Card 2

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somatic

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a) Used to treat somatic cells that are damaged or unhealthy.c) Used in UK and is in trial to become more widespread. Stem cell treatment for example, by trying to battle leukaemia with adult stem cells.

Card 3

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somatic example

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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gene therapy

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Card 5

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positive therapy

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