genetic control of protein structure and function

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degenerate code
most amino acids have more than one codon
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stop codon
a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation
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universal code
the same codon codes for the same amino acid in all organism
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polymer
large molecule made up ofrepeating smaller molecules
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gene
a sequence of bases that code for a polypeptide
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mRNA
a long strand that is arranged in a single helix
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tRNA
a relatively small molecule that is made up of around 80 nucleotides. it is a single stranded chain folded into a clover leaf shape
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genetic code
sequence of bases that codes for the production of proteins
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codon
each amino acid in a protein is coded for a sequence of 3 nucleotide bases on mRNA
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anticodon
pairs with the codon on mRNA
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transcription
a complementary section of part of DNA is made in the form of a molecule called pre-mRNA
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splicing
in the pre-mRNA, these interving non-functional introns are removed and the functional exons are joined together to give mRNA
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translation
code on mRNA is translated into the sequence of an amino acid in a polypeptide
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DNA helicase
an enzyme that acts on a specidic region on the DNA molecule to break the hydrogen bonds between the bases causing the two strands to seperate and expose the nucleotide bases in that region
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peptide bond
the chemical bond formed between two amino acids during a condensation reaction
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mutation
a change in the sequence of bases in DNA
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nonsense mutation
occurs if the base change results in the formation of one of the three stop codons that mark the end of a polypeptide chain
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mis-sense mutation
arises when the bas change results in a different amino acid being coded for
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silent mutation
occurs when the substituted base, although different, still codes for the same amino acid as beore
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proto-oncogenes
stimulate cell division
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tumour suppressor genes
that slow cell division
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation

Back

stop codon

Card 3

Front

the same codon codes for the same amino acid in all organism

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

large molecule made up ofrepeating smaller molecules

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a sequence of bases that code for a polypeptide

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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