Genes and Behaviour

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What are some problems with researching behavioural genetics (5)?
Difficulty in defining and quantifying behaviour, environmental influences make research more complex, inter/ intra variation, many genes are involved, different genes function in different tissues at different times.
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What are the main ideas of heredity (3)?
Continuity (blending inheritance, resemblance to both parents, malleable), intact transmission (particulate inheritance, genes), discontinuity (non-resemblance of traits, mutations).
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What contributes to the expression or production of a phenotype?
Genes.
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What are proteins?
Made up of amino acid sequences. Can have structural or transport/ storage functions.
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What can expression of a gene influence (4)?
Expression of other genes, activity of the cell/ other tissues/ organs, developmental processes, activity of the brain/ muscles/ messenger systems.
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What can quantitative traits be?
Morphological, physiological or behavioural.
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What is norm of reaction?
The pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotypes across a range of environments.
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What is phenotypic variance based on?
Additive effects of genetic variance and environmental variance.
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What is the equation for variance of trait (Vt)?
Vt = genetic variance (Vg) + environmental variance (Ve).
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What is trait heritability determined by?
The relationship between additive genetic variance and total trait variance.
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What is the equation for trait heritability?
Trait heritability = Vg / Vt.
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What is selective breeding?
Choosing animals to breed because of a particular trait they possess, in the hopes of producing offspring with that trait.
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What is a monomorphic gene?
A gene with one wild-type allele.
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What is a polymorphic gene?
A gene with two or more wild-type alleles.
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What is a germ-line mutation?
A mutation in a gamete.
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What is a somatic mutation?
A mutation in the embryo.
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Why are twin/ adoption studies useful?
They can be used to investigate the effects of genes and the environment on behaviour.
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Card 2

Front

What are the main ideas of heredity (3)?

Back

Continuity (blending inheritance, resemblance to both parents, malleable), intact transmission (particulate inheritance, genes), discontinuity (non-resemblance of traits, mutations).

Card 3

Front

What contributes to the expression or production of a phenotype?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can expression of a gene influence (4)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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