Genes Vs the environment

HideShow resource information
What is the definition of genetic influence?
refers to the science of all things hereditry and is typically hat we could call inheritance
1 of 47
What are chromosones and genes?
handed down through numerous generations as part of evolution
2 of 47
but more immediately through?
Parents are said to be genetic
3 of 47
In psychological terms, what are examples?
gender, phobias and schizophrenia can all be seen as being influences by genetics that have not been altered by external factors
4 of 47
The term environment means?
inflences outside an individuals body
5 of 47
What could these be in the form of?
other people, oppurtunities for intellectual stimulation or any form of interation/experience
6 of 47
Any influence on a person's behaviour that is what? is said to be what?
post-natal is said to be an environmental influence
7 of 47
What could psychological examples of enironmental influences be?
behaviours such as phobias and mental disorders being influenced by external factors such as social learning theory and conditioning
8 of 47
What does this debate look at?
the fundamental question that psychologists ask about human behaviour:Why are we the way we are?
9 of 47
The question assumes what?
whatever the outcome of the controversy, behaviour is in one way or anyother determined
10 of 47
At this stage it is important to note what?
we recognise that some behaviours are due to hereditary factors (genes) and others environmental
11 of 47
The real question is not either or but what?
which has the most influence on human behaviour
12 of 47
What is the first example of when genetic influences on human behaviour override environmental influences?
Is in Dr Money's failed attempt to alter the gender of Bruce Reimer.
13 of 47
After an accident during circumcision what was decided?
Bruce would be raised a ******* the assumption that 'gender neutrality' was correct
14 of 47
What is gender neutrality?
genetic influencs of chromosomes could be overridden by the environment in which he was raised
15 of 47
After how many years was Bruce (now Brenda told about his true gender?
14 years
16 of 47
What did he revert to?
being male, claiming that he had always known that he was a boy
17 of 47
However, is it possible that Bruce could have what?
lied about always knowing his true identity
18 of 47
Does this evidence suggest what?
that genetics have a greater influence on behaviour than environment
19 of 47
Alternatively what do behavourists suggest?
Bandura would suggest that environmental influences play the biggest role
20 of 47
What did he suggest about aggression?
could be learned through Social learning theory-observation and imitation of role models
21 of 47
In his infamous bobo doll experiment, what did he see?
children would copy the aggressive behaviours they saw in an adult role models (vicarious reinforcement)
22 of 47
What does this powerful evidence suggest?
environmental factors are more important than the Reimar study wouold suggest particularly in the case of personality characterstics
23 of 47
If this is true, should we be what?
discounting genetic factors as a limited source of inlfuence as we are bon a Tabula Rasa?
24 of 47
Examples of twin and adoption studies suggest what?
there are genetic influences for disorders such as schizophrenia
25 of 47
Who did Kety study?
Danish pps who were adopted and who later became schizophrenic
26 of 47
What did he find?
14% f biological relatives of the pps were themselves schizophrenic
27 of 47
However, how many adoptive relatives had the disorder?
28 of 47
What does this show?
a strong link between genetic influences and human behaviours is shown in regards to such disorder
29 of 47
However what did it show about adopted children?
are often paired up with the parents with a similar backgrounds and the diathesis stress model suggests environmental triggers might also play a role
30 of 47
What did Watson claim?
That there was 'no such thing as inheritance of capacity, temperant, mental constitution and character
31 of 47
What did he argue?
all behaviours are learned from the environment.
32 of 47
What did his study of little Albert conclude?
how a fear of a white rat could be classically conditioned into a child and suggested that no fear was innate
33 of 47
What was the fact?
that one could not always pinpoint when such learning occured was relevant and as such all behaviour was caused by environmental factors
34 of 47
Howver, could such a strict view of environment over genes be?
35 of 47
What about?
Seligman's findings of animal phobias
36 of 47
What did Frued try to find?
a balance between both genetic and environmental factors
37 of 47
In regards to genetics he believed what?
all humans had an inborn dirive to survive over others
38 of 47
What about the libido and the unconscious mind?
influences behaviour dramatically
39 of 47
Here behaviours and defence mechanisms were not what?
things that were learnt but were part of the person from birth
40 of 47
If this were the case we should all be what?
similar, where genetics are the key foundations for behaviour
41 of 47
Such similarities were suggested by who?
Buss' evolutionary study of mate preference
42 of 47
However what did Freud also believe?
that during the psychosexual sages a child's experiences such as harsh potty training, could lead to fixations and later personality characteristics
43 of 47
A child would experience what?
many things due to early childhood that would be subject to individual differences
44 of 47
What does this explain?
how the same innate drives could lead to difference adult personalities and behaviours due to unique experiences they face
45 of 47
If Freud's theory is true what does this suggest?
ignores the subjectivity of Freud's evidence, how we can measure what is due to genes and what is due to the environment
46 of 47
In conclusion what is the transgenerational effect?
here what appears to be genetic is actually due to the environmental influences of a person's grandmother - whose eggs within her unbor female child may have been affected by the environment of the grand mother
47 of 47

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are chromosones and genes?


handed down through numerous generations as part of evolution

Card 3


but more immediately through?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In psychological terms, what are examples?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


The term environment means?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Contreversies resources »