Genes and Reproduction

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What does the nucleus contain?
Gentic material
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What is genetic material made of?
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In a human cell nucleus, how many pairs of chromosomes are there?
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What is a gene?
A short length of the chromosome
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What is a chromosome?
A long length of DNA
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What are different versions of the same gene called?
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What is sexual reproduction?
It is where genetic information from two organisms is combined to produce offspring which are genetically different to either parent
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In sexual reproduction, what do the mother and father produce?
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In humans, how many chromosomes do each gamete contain?
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How does variation occur in sexual reproduction?
The offspring receive a mixture of genetic material
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What is formed when two human gametes fuse?
A zygote
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What is asexual reproduction?
When an ordinary cell divides in two to make a new cell, and the new cell has exactly the same genes as the parent cell
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How many parents are there in asexual reproduction?
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Why are the offspring genetically identical to the parent in asexual reproduction?
There's no fusion of gametes, no mixing of chromosomes and no genetic variation between parent and offspring
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Describe the process of asexual reproduction
X-shaped chromosomes have two identical halves, so each chromosome splits down the middle to form two identical sets of 'half-chromosomes'. A membrane forms around each set and the DNA replicates itself to form two identical cells
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Which two organisms use asexual reproduction to produce replacement cells?
Plants and animals
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Give two examples of organisms that produce offspring using asexual reproduction
Bacteria and certain plants
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Card 2


What is genetic material made of?



Card 3


In a human cell nucleus, how many pairs of chromosomes are there?


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Card 4


What is a gene?


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Card 5


What is a chromosome?


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