Generating electricity

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 26-05-14 14:06
What are fossil fuels and how are thye formed?
Fossil fuels are coal, oi land gas and are formed from the remain of living organisms over millions of years-They are non-renewable,
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What are the four stages of generating electricity and the enrgy transfers in each stage?
Coal-Store of chemical anergy transferred as heat->Water and steam-Store of heat energy transferred as movement->Turbine-Energy transferred as movement-> Generator-energy transferred as electricity
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What are the disadvanatges of using foissil fuels?
-Their supply is limited and they will eventually run out, -Sulfur dioxide is released when they burn which casues breathing problems and acid rain, -Releases carbon dioxide which contritbutes to global waring,
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What is carbon caputre and what does it prevent?
Carbon caputre involves seperating carbon dioxide from waste gases which is then stored underground-It prevents carbon dioxide building up in the atmosphere,
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What are the 2 main nucelur fuels and what are they?
Uranium and Plutonium which are radioactive metals
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How does nucleur fuels release energy?
By nucleur fission reactions (where the nuclei in the atoms split) and they then releasen heat energy
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How is this heat energy then used to create electrcity?
The heat energy is used to boil water and the kinetic energy in the expanding steam spins turbines which drive a generator to produce electricity,
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What is the advantage of nucleur fuels?
They don't produce waste gases like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide so doesnt contribute to global warming ot acid rain, -A large amount of energy is produced from a small amount of fuel, -Fuel is readily available.
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What is the disadvantage of nucleur fuels?
-Poisonous waste which is highly radioactive and disposal of this radioactive waste hasnt been achived, -Power station gangerous to large areas due to serious accidents which makes areas radioactive, -Station is expensive to build
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How is wind produced?
A a result of giant convection currents in the Earth's atmosphere driven by heat energy from the sun
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How does wind energy provide electrcity?
As the wind blows, it transfers some of its kinetic energy to the blades causing them to turn which drive the generator,
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What are the advanatges of wind energy?
Wind is a renewable energy resource, -No fuel costs, -No harmful polluting gases released, -Little land is used to build the turbines on,
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What are the disadvanatges of wind energy?
-Noise pollution-Very noisy, -Eye sore as it spoils the view for people living near them, -Amount of electrcity produced depends on wind, -When turbines are built and put up, pollution is produced,
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What are the three types of water energies?
-Wave power, -Tides, -Hydroelectric power
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How is wave machines used to produce electricity?
Wave machines use the kinetic energy of the rise and fall of the sea from waves to drive electricity generators,
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How is a tidal barrage used to produce electrcity?
The tidal barrage is a barrier built over a river which uses the tides kinetic energy-The water moving in and out of river mouths- which drives generators when water rushes through tibes in the barrage
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How is hydroelectricity used to produce electrciity?
Hydroelectricity uses dams across a river and the water high up has gravitational potential energy which is transferred to kinetic energy as water rushed through tubes in the dam which drives electrical generators,
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What are the advanatges of water energy?
-It is a renewable energy resource, -No fuel costs, -No harmful polluting gases produced, -Tidal barrages and hydroelectric stations are very reliable and can be easily switched on, -Very efficient and predictable-always a tide,
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What are the disadvanatges of water energy?
-Expensive to build the machinery so releases polluting gases in creation and transport, -Eye sore-Dams ruins landscape, -Only produces energy some times-Not always large waves, tides only every so often,-Can disrupt marine animals and floods caused
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what is Geothermal energy?
Hot water and steam from deep underground is used to drive turbines,
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How does volanic areas create geothermal energy?
The radioactive decay of rock releases heat energy which warms rocks and these rocks may heat water so it rises to the surface naturally as hot water and steam-this drives turbines and generators,
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How does hot rocks create geothermal energy when no steam or hot water rises?
Deep well can be drilled down to hot rocks and cold water is pumped down. The water runs over rocks which heats the water and returns to the surface as hot water and steam which drives turbines and generators,
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What are the advanatges of geothermal energy?
-renewable energy resource, -No fuel costs, -No harmful gases, -Can meet the base load energy demand
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What are the disadvantags of geothermal energy?
-Most parts of the wrold dont have suitable areas where geothermal energy can be used, -Can affect stability of land and can cause Earthquakes, -expensive to build,
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What are solar cells?
Devices that convert light energy directly into electrical energy,
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What are solar panels?
They use the heat energy from the sun to heat water,
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What are the advantages of solar energy?
-Renewable energy resource, -No fuel costs, -No harmful gases released, -Provides electricity in remote locations, -
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What are the disadvantages of solar energy?
-Expensive, -Insuffient as they don't work at night or in dull weather, -They dont meet the base load needed, -Areas like the UK dont have a reliable climate-can only be used in some places,
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Power stations fuelled by fossil fuels-coal, gas, oil, nucleur-are reliable energy resources. However what is the order ot their start up time from shortest to longest?
Gas stations, Oil station, Coal station, Nucleur power stations,
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What does it mean when we say Nucleur and coal station provide 'base-load' electricity?
They run all the time because they take such a long tiem to start
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When are oil and gas stations uses?
They are used to provide extra electricity at peak times as they take little time to start up,
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How is electrcity distrubuted from power stations?
the National Grid through wires and cables,
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What happens when current flows through the wires and how is this prevented?
When current flows, some energy is lost as heat so the national grid transmits electricity at a low current so a high voltage,
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What is the transformer called that increases the voltage and decreases the current?
Step-up transformer,
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What is a step-down transformer?
A transformer that decreases voltage and increases current,
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What are the four stages of transporting electrcity from a power station?
Step-up transformer->High voltage transmission lines-> step-down transformer->consumers-homes, shops,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the four stages of generating electricity and the enrgy transfers in each stage?

Back

Coal-Store of chemical anergy transferred as heat->Water and steam-Store of heat energy transferred as movement->Turbine-Energy transferred as movement-> Generator-energy transferred as electricity

Card 3

Front

What are the disadvanatges of using foissil fuels?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is carbon caputre and what does it prevent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 2 main nucelur fuels and what are they?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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