General neuroscience

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  • Created by: CanveySam
  • Created on: 05-05-15 13:16
Name three parts of a neuron
cell body, axons, dendrites
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What are dendrites?
Branching structures that receive information from other neurons
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What are axons?
Branching structures that carry information to other neurons and transmits and action potential
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What is a synapse?
The small gap between the neurons in which neurotransmitters are released, permitting signalling between neurons
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What is an Action Potential?
A sudden change (depolarisation and depolarisation) in the electrical properties of the neurone membrane in an axon
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What are neurotransmitters?
Chemical signals that are released by one neurone and affect the properties of other neurons
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What is myelin?
A fatty substance that is deposited around the axon of some neurons that speeds conduction
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What is gray matter?
Matter consisting primarily of neuronal cell bodies
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What is white matter?
Tissue of the nervous system consisting primarily of axons and support cells (glia)
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What are glia?
support cells of the nervous system involved in tissue repair and i the formation of myelin
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What is the corpus callosum?
A large white matter tract that connects the two hemispheres
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Which ventricle lies in the brain stem?
Fourth ventricle
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Which ventricles are found in each hemisphere?
Lateral ventricles
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Which ventricle lies centrally around the subcortical structures?
Third ventricle
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Name three parts of the basal ganglia
Putamen, Caudate nucleus, globus pallidus
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Name three structures in the diencephalon
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Mamillary bodies
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Name three structures of the hindbrain
Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla oblongata
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Name two structures of the midbrain
Superior and inferior colliculi, substantia nigra
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Which two areas make up the forebrain?
Diencephalon and cerebrum (telencephalon)
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What is another word for cerebrum?
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What three areas of the cerebrum?
Cerebral cortex, limbic system, basal ganglia
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Name the three parts of the limbic system
Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cingulate cortex
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What are the basal ganglia?
Subcortical gray matter. Large rounded masses in each hemisphere. Surround thalamus. Involved in motor control and skill learning
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What are two diseases of the basal ganglia?
Parkinson's (hypokinetic) and Huntingdon's disease (hyperkinetic)
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What is the limbic system?
A region of subcortex involved in relating the organism to its present and past environment. It detects and expresses emotional responses
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Which lobe are the amygdala and hippocampi (limbic) found in?
Temporal lobe
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Name two small structures that are visible from the ventral surface
Mamillary bodies and olfactory bulbs
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What are the mamillary bodies (diencephalon/limbic)?
Two small, round protrusions that have been implicated in memory.
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Which lobe do the olfactory bulbs (limbic) lie under?
Frontal lobe
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What is the thalamus (diencephalon)?
A major subcortical relay centre and sensory processing station between all sensory organs (except smell) and the cortex
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What is the hypothalamus (diencephalon)?
A variety of nuclei that are specialised for different functions, primarily concerned with the body and its regulation e.g. body temp, hunger, thirst, endocrine regulation
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What structures are easily visible from the ventral surface?
Medulla, pons, midbrain, mamillary bodies, hypothalamus, optic: tracts, chiasm, nerves, olfactory bulbs
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What lies at the posterior end of the thalamus?
Lateral geniculate nucleus (visual) and the medial geniculate nucleus (auditory)
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What structures are visible from a coronal section through the amygdala?
2 amygdalas, hypothalmus, thalamus, ventricle (3rd?), lateral ventricle, and basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are dendrites?


Branching structures that receive information from other neurons

Card 3


What are axons?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a synapse?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is an Action Potential?


Preview of the front of card 5
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