Gene techonolgy 2

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  • Created by: Sopha8
  • Created on: 08-06-15 20:23
Why can genetic fingerprints be used to identify an individual from a sample of DNA?
the number of times that the sequence of Short tandem repeats is repeated at different places (loci) in the genome differs from person to person
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Explain the stages of genetic fingerprinting
1- PCR using primers that bind to either end of sequence and are fluorescently labelled 2-separate fragments using gel electrophoresis, the sequences with least number of repeats will travell furthest 3-place under uv light
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What are the possible uses of genetic fingerprinting?
1-determining gentic relationships 2-determinig genetic variablity in a poulation 3-forensics 4-medical diagnosis 5-prevent interbreeding in animals
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What is a gene probe?
short stand of DNA which is complimentary to base sequence of target gene
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How and why are gene probes used?
used to locate or identify is person has specific gene 1-target gene cut from DNA by resitriction endonuclease 2-gel electrophoresis 3-transfer into nylon membrane & labelled probe, if gene is present probe will hybridise to it & glow under uv/X-ray
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What is restriction mapping?
cut DNA with different resitriction endonuclease and use gel electrophoresis to identify fragment given by enzyme then cut using 2+ of the enzymes and undergo gel electrophoresis. you can then identifying where recognition sites of enzymes are
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How is DNA base sequencing carried out?
1-set up 4 tubes with DNA template, polymerase, primers, free nucleotides and 1 type of modified nucleotide (either A T C G) 2-PRC to produce fragments with labelled modified nucleotide at different place 3-gel electrophoresis
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What is sickle cell anaemia?
recessive gentic disorder caused by mutation in haemoglobin that causes it to have a sickle shape that block capilaires. carriers are more protected from maliaria
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How is a DNA probe formed?
sequence target gene then use PCR to create copies that will be the probe
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How can we screen for multiple genes?
using microarry which is a glass slide of many probes. flurosently labelled DNA is washed over mircoarry then shown under uv light where the DNA has hydribised to probes therefore which of the gene are present
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What is gene therapy?
the alteration of deflective genes to treat genetic disorders and cancer
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What are the 2 ways gene therapy alters genes?
1-adding dominant allele if disorder is caused by recessive alleles 2-silencing dominant allele.
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Decribe the 2 types of gene therapy?
1-germ line=alterning allele in sex cell 2-somatic=altering alleles in cell that are most specifict to disorder
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How do you get the functioning allele DNA into cells?
1-using viral vectors without viral DNA, they inject DNA into nuclease after being taken up by endocytosiss 2-using liposomes which are spheres of lipids with no DNA, they fuse with plasma membrane
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Card 2

Front

Explain the stages of genetic fingerprinting

Back

1- PCR using primers that bind to either end of sequence and are fluorescently labelled 2-separate fragments using gel electrophoresis, the sequences with least number of repeats will travell furthest 3-place under uv light

Card 3

Front

What are the possible uses of genetic fingerprinting?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a gene probe?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How and why are gene probes used?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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