Gene Structure Lecture 1

What is a nucleotide
A base that is attached to a sugar and a phosphate molecule
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What is DNA Complimentary?
Adenine always pairs with Thymine and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
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What is DNA Replication?
The process by which DNA replicates to make a new daughter DNA molecule
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What are the enzymes/proteins involved in DNA Replication?
DNA Helicases, single stranded binding proteins, Primase, DNA Polymerase and DNA Ligase
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What is a chromosome made up of?
Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around a histone protein
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What is a gene?
DNA segment carrying the genetic information
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What are the four chemical bases of RNA?
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Uracil
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What is Transcription?
Conversion of DNA to fully mature RNA
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What is RNA Spilcing
A modification of pre-mRNA transcription in which introns are removed and exons are joined
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What are the differences between RNA and DNA?
Deoxyribose vs ribose, double vs single, T vs U
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What is a codon
A sequence of 3 nucleotides which together form a unit of genetic code in a RNA molecule
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What is the start Codon? and what amino acid does it code for ?
AUG - Start Codon, Methionine
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In which part of the cell does translation process take place?
Cytoplasm
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What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
The flow of information from DNA to Proteins
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What are the 4 types of structural mutations?
Substitution, insertion, deletion and frame shift
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How are the mutations classified based on the function of the gene?
Lethal, loss of function (null and leaky) and gain of function
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What are the applications of microsatellites?
DNA Profiling - forensic science, parental testing, food industry
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What are the component of protein synthetic machinery?
mRNA, tRNA, Ribosomes, amino acids, amino acyl tRNA synthetase
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is DNA Complimentary?

Back

Adenine always pairs with Thymine and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine

Card 3

Front

What is DNA Replication?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the enzymes/proteins involved in DNA Replication?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a chromosome made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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