gender terminology

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marked terms
lexical items marked to distinguish them from those used to describe males. e.g. lioness
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unmarked terms
the measured norm e.g. lion
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covert marking
where one item in a pair is seen as the norm and another as deviant. e.g. young and old- "how old are you" not "how young are you"
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overt marking
a more obvious form of marking through the addition of the suffix -ess e.g. actress and waitress.
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semantic derogation
lexical items with negative meanings or connotations attached e.g. ****
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semantic deterioration
the process by which negative connotations become attached to lexical items e.g. ******
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amelioration
when a word acquires a more positive meaning e.g. knight, lad
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pejoration
when a word changes meaning in a negative way e.g. hussy used to mean house wife, now means a woman with a lack of sexual moral.
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lexical asymmetry
the mbalance between names and gender e.g. master and mistress.
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socialisation process
individuals behaviours are conditioned and shaped.
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folklinguistics
assumptions about language that have no real evidence.
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covert prestige
a form of high status given to non-standard forms.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the measured norm e.g. lion

Back

unmarked terms

Card 3

Front

where one item in a pair is seen as the norm and another as deviant. e.g. young and old- "how old are you" not "how young are you"

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a more obvious form of marking through the addition of the suffix -ess e.g. actress and waitress.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

lexical items with negative meanings or connotations attached e.g. ****

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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