Gender studies

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  • Created by: 8cburton
  • Created on: 30-04-15 21:27
GENES AND HORMONES- David Reimer
Born a boy but at 8 months his penis was removed in a circumcision that went wrong. At 21 months he was raised as a girl and at puberty given oestrogen. At 13 he suffered depression. At 14 he was told he was a boy and reverted back to being male.
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GENES AND HORMONES- females with androgenital syndrome
When exposed to high levels of testosterone in the womb females show more tomboyish rough and tumble play.
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GENES AND HORMONES- Diamond- Rat study
Injected pregnant rats with testosterone, female offspring had male like genitals and attempted to mate with females
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GENES AND HORMONES- Gorski- Rat study continued
Repeated Diamonds study and found the female rats had male sized sexually demorphic nucleus
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EVOLUTIONARY (parental investment theory)- Buss
Survey in 37 cultures, respondents rated a number of factors (age, intelligence, sociability) according to how important they are in a sexual partner. Women valued earning power+high occupational status while men valued physical attractiveness
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EVOLUTIONARY (parental investment theory)- Anderson
Willingness of men to pay for college education. Most willing to pay for their own child while living with the mother. Did not discriminate financially between a child born from their relationship or a previous one
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EVOLUTIONARY (empathizing- systematizing theory)- Jennifer Connellan + Anna Batkti
Babies saw Connellan's face and a mobile hanging over their crib. They were videoed. Tapes showed that 1 day old girls looked more at the face while the boys looked more at the toy- supported their theory
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EVOLUTIONARY (empathizing- systematizing theory)- Baron Cohen + Wheelwright
Developed questionnaires to assess peoples empathizing quotient+ systematizing quotient. Constantly found males score higher on the SQ and females on the EQ. Some did vary
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BIOSOCIAL- Smith + Lloyd
Found adults treated their babies according to their gender they perceived them to be. 6 month old babies dressed as opposite sex, unknown adults played with them and boys given hammers while girls given dolls.
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BIOSOCIAL- David Remier
Contradict theory as he was brought up as a girl but felt like a boy suggesting the nurture part is less important than nature. However the 1st 22 months he was brought up as a boy so we cannot be sure it contradicts
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BIOSOCIAL APPROACH TO GENDER DYSPHORIA- Zhou et al
Post mortems done on 6 male to female transsexuals had female sized BSTc. Size of BSTc can't be wholly accounted for due to the sex hormones they would have taken in adulthood.
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BIOSOCIAL APPROACHES TO GENDER DYSPHORIA- Beautiful boys
Boys with gender dysphoria were more likely to be described as beautiful by the mothers than control children.
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BIOSOCIAL APPROACHES TO GENDER DYSPHORIA- Culture differences
Number of sex realignment increases as it becomes more socially accepted. Highest rates are in Thailand.
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KOHLBERG GENDER CONSISTENCY- Martin+ Little
Studied 3-5 yr olds and found they had very basic understanding on gender+ strong stereotypes on what boys and girls do. This contracts the theory as this suggests children don't need to understand gender to be able to act accordingly
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KOHLBERG GENDER CONSISTENCY- Slaby+ Frey
Questioned children 'which one are you' when showing picture of girl and boy (measuring gender identity) 'Will you grow up to be a mummy or daddy' (measure consistency). Found children do go through the stages in the order Kohlberg suggested
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KOHLBERG GENDER CONSISTENCY- Cultural studies
Showed children do develop in the 3 stages. This provides good support as it is multicultural so applies to everyone despite their culture
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GENDER SCHEMA THEORY- Martin+ Little
Supports theory- found infants showed strong gender stereotypes about gender appropriate behaviours, thus using schemas to behave 'correctly'. (They don't need to understand gender to use schemas)
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GENDER SCHEMA THEORY- Martin et al- toy study
4-5 year olds shown toys and told what gender the toy was for. They asked whether boys or girls would play with the toy. Boys wouldn't play with girl toys and vice versa. But when asked which toy they play with they justify by talking about the toy
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SOCIAL INFLUENCES (informal socializing agents)- Hagan+ Kuebli
80 3-4 yr olds climbed across 5ft high catwalk under mother and father supervision. Fathers monitored daughters more closely than sons while mothers monitored their children equally. Suggests fathers are discriminate to girls.
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SOCIAL INFLUENCES (informal socializing agents)- Friedman et al
Mother read gender related story. Content analysis showed mothers with gender- equal attitudes used more counter stereotypical comments with daughters. Mothers attitudes predicted stereotyping in younger children but not older
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SOCIAL INFLUENCES (formal socializing agents)- Evans+ davies
Content analysis on books published in 1997 for American children at school. Male characters more aggressive/ competitive while female characters more passive/ emotionally expressive
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SOCIAL INFLUENCES (formal socializing agents)- Bigler
Field experiment where teachers put students into gender groups or colour groups. 4 weeks later the gender groups were more gender stereotypical compared to control group and their pre-test scores
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CULTURAL INFLUENCES- Wood+ Eagly
Data from 1000s of cultures and coded using content analysis. Found across non- industrialised cultures men generally contributed more than women to providing food and women contributed more to child care
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CULTURE INFLUENCES- Mead
Studied 3 pre-industrial societies in Papa New Guinea. 1 tribe both men+ women peaceful/ non aggressive. 1 society both men and women uncooperative/ warlike. 1 society women dominant/ male submissive
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CULTURAL INFLUENCES- Gewertz- reliability of Meads study
The tribe where females were dominant found to be the wrong way round (males should be more aggressive that women). He argued Mead studied them when they were in a transitory phase to their lifestyle.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When exposed to high levels of testosterone in the womb females show more tomboyish rough and tumble play.

Back

GENES AND HORMONES- females with androgenital syndrome

Card 3

Front

Injected pregnant rats with testosterone, female offspring had male like genitals and attempted to mate with females

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Repeated Diamonds study and found the female rats had male sized sexually demorphic nucleus

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Survey in 37 cultures, respondents rated a number of factors (age, intelligence, sociability) according to how important they are in a sexual partner. Women valued earning power+high occupational status while men valued physical attractiveness

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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